International Building Code Section 1607

International Building Code 1607.1

General. Live loads are those loads defined in Section
1602.1.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.10

Distribution of floor loads. Where uniform floor live
loads are involved in the design of structural members arranged
so as to create continuity, the minimum applied loads shall be
the full dead loads on all spans in combination with the floor
live loads on spans selected to produce the greatest effect at
each location under consideration. It shall be permitted to
reduce floor live loads in accordance with Section 1607.9.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.11

Roof loads. The structural supports of roofs and marquees
shall be designed to resist wind and, where applicable,
snow and earthquake loads, in addition to the dead load of construction
and the appropriate live loads as prescribed in this
section, or as set forth in Table 1607.1. The live loads acting on
a sloping surface shall be assumed to act vertically on the horizontal
projection of that surface.

Distribution of roof loads. Where uniform roof
live loads are reduced to less than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) in
accordance with Section 1607.11.2.1 and are involved in the
design of structural members arranged so as to create continuity,
the minimum applied loads shall be the full dead loads
on all spans in combination with the roof live loads on adjacent
spans or on alternate spans, whichever produces the
greatest effect. See Section 1607.11.2 for minimum roof
live loads and Section 7.5 of ASCE 7 for partial snow loading.

Reduction in roof live loads. The minimum uniformly
distributed roof live loads, Lo, in Table 1607.1 are permitted
to be reduced according to the following provisions.

Flat, pitched and curved roofs. Ordinary
flat, pitched and curved roofs are permitted to be
designed for a reduced roof live load as specified in the
following equation or other controlling combinations of
loads in Section 1605, whichever produces the greater
load. In structures where special scaffolding is used as a
work surface for workers and materials during maintenance
and repair operations, a lower roof load than specified
in the following equation shall not be used unless
approved by the building official. Greenhouses shall be
designed for a minimum roof live load of 12 psf (0.58
kN/m2).
(Equation 16-27)
where: 12 =?Lr =?20
For SI: Lr = Lo R1R2
where: 0.58 =?Lr =?0.96
Lr = Reduced live load per square foot (m2) of horizontal
projection in pounds per square foot (kN/m2).
The reduction factors R1 and R2 shall be determined as
follows:
(Equation 16-28)
(Equation 16-29)
For SI: (Equation 16-30)
where:
At = Tributary area (span length multiplied by effective
width) in square feet (m2) supported by any structural
member, and
(Equation 16-31)
(Equation 16-32)
(Equation 16-33)
where:
F = For a sloped roof, the number of inches of rise per
foot (for SI: F = 0.12 ??slope, with slope expressed
as a percentage), or for an arch or dome, the
rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32.

Special-purpose roofs. Roofs used for
promenade purposes, roof gardens, assembly purposes
or other special purposes shall be designed for a minimumlive
load as required in Table 1607.1. Such roof live
loads are permitted to be reduced in accordance with
1607.9.

Landscaped roofs. Where roofs are to be
landscaped, the uniform design live load in the landscaped
area shall be 20 psf (0.958 kN/m2). The weight of
the landscaping materials shall be considered as dead
load and shall be computed on the basis of saturation of
the soil.

Awnings and canopies.Awnings and canopies
shall be designed for uniform live loads as required
in Table 1607.1 as well as for snow loads and wind loads
as specified in Sections 1608 and 1609.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.11.1

Distribution of roof loads. Where uniform roof
live loads are reduced to less than 20 psf (0.96 kN/m2) in
accordance with Section 1607.11.2.1 and are involved in the
design of structural members arranged so as to create continuity,
the minimum applied loads shall be the full dead loads
on all spans in combination with the roof live loads on adjacent
spans or on alternate spans, whichever produces the
greatest effect. See Section 1607.11.2 for minimum roof
live loads and Section 7.5 of ASCE 7 for partial snow loading.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.11.2

Reduction in roof live loads. The minimum uniformly
distributed roof live loads, Lo, in Table 1607.1 are permitted
to be reduced according to the following provisions.

Flat, pitched and curved roofs. Ordinary
flat, pitched and curved roofs are permitted to be
designed for a reduced roof live load as specified in the
following equation or other controlling combinations of
loads in Section 1605, whichever produces the greater
load. In structures where special scaffolding is used as a
work surface for workers and materials during maintenance
and repair operations, a lower roof load than specified
in the following equation shall not be used unless
approved by the building official. Greenhouses shall be
designed for a minimum roof live load of 12 psf (0.58
kN/m2).
(Equation 16-27)
where: 12 =?Lr =?20
For SI: Lr = Lo R1R2
where: 0.58 =?Lr =?0.96
Lr = Reduced live load per square foot (m2) of horizontal
projection in pounds per square foot (kN/m2).
The reduction factors R1 and R2 shall be determined as
follows:
(Equation 16-28)
(Equation 16-29)
For SI: (Equation 16-30)
where:
At = Tributary area (span length multiplied by effective
width) in square feet (m2) supported by any structural
member, and
(Equation 16-31)
(Equation 16-32)
(Equation 16-33)
where:
F = For a sloped roof, the number of inches of rise per
foot (for SI: F = 0.12 ??slope, with slope expressed
as a percentage), or for an arch or dome, the
rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32.

Special-purpose roofs. Roofs used for
promenade purposes, roof gardens, assembly purposes
or other special purposes shall be designed for a minimumlive
load as required in Table 1607.1. Such roof live
loads are permitted to be reduced in accordance with
1607.9.

Landscaped roofs. Where roofs are to be
landscaped, the uniform design live load in the landscaped
area shall be 20 psf (0.958 kN/m2). The weight of
the landscaping materials shall be considered as dead
load and shall be computed on the basis of saturation of
the soil.

Awnings and canopies.Awnings and canopies
shall be designed for uniform live loads as required
in Table 1607.1 as well as for snow loads and wind loads
as specified in Sections 1608 and 1609.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.11.2.1

Flat, pitched and curved roofs. Ordinary
flat, pitched and curved roofs are permitted to be
designed for a reduced roof live load as specified in the
following equation or other controlling combinations of
loads in Section 1605, whichever produces the greater
load. In structures where special scaffolding is used as a
work surface for workers and materials during maintenance
and repair operations, a lower roof load than specified
in the following equation shall not be used unless
approved by the building official. Greenhouses shall be
designed for a minimum roof live load of 12 psf (0.58
kN/m2).
(Equation 16-27)
where: 12 =?Lr =?20
For SI: Lr = Lo R1R2
where: 0.58 =?Lr =?0.96
Lr = Reduced live load per square foot (m2) of horizontal
projection in pounds per square foot (kN/m2).
The reduction factors R1 and R2 shall be determined as
follows:
(Equation 16-28)
(Equation 16-29)
For SI: (Equation 16-30)
where:
At = Tributary area (span length multiplied by effective
width) in square feet (m2) supported by any structural
member, and
(Equation 16-31)
(Equation 16-32)
(Equation 16-33)
where:
F = For a sloped roof, the number of inches of rise per
foot (for SI: F = 0.12 ??slope, with slope expressed
as a percentage), or for an arch or dome, the
rise-to-span ratio multiplied by 32.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.11.2.2

Special-purpose roofs. Roofs used for
promenade purposes, roof gardens, assembly purposes
or other special purposes shall be designed for a minimumlive
load as required in Table 1607.1. Such roof live
loads are permitted to be reduced in accordance with
1607.9.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.11.2.3

Landscaped roofs. Where roofs are to be
landscaped, the uniform design live load in the landscaped
area shall be 20 psf (0.958 kN/m2). The weight of
the landscaping materials shall be considered as dead
load and shall be computed on the basis of saturation of
the soil.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.11.2.4

Awnings and canopies.Awnings and canopies
shall be designed for uniform live loads as required
in Table 1607.1 as well as for snow loads and wind loads
as specified in Sections 1608 and 1609.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.12

Crane loads. The crane live load shall be the rated
capacity of the crane. Design loads for the runway beams,
including connections and support brackets, of moving bridge
cranes and monorail cranes shall include the maximum wheel
loads of the crane and the vertical impact, lateral and longitudinal
forces induced by the moving crane.

Maximum wheel load. The maximum wheel
loads shall be the wheel loads produced by the weight of the
bridge, as applicable, plus the sum of the rated capacity and
the weight of the trolley with the trolley positioned on its
runway at the location where the resulting load effect is
maximum.

Vertical impact force. The maximum wheel
loads of the crane shall be increased by the percentages
shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or
vibration force:
Monorail cranes (powered) # # # # # # # # # 25 percent
Cab-operated or remotely operated
bridge cranes (powered) # # # # # # # # # # # 25 percent
Pendant-operated bridge cranes (powered) # 10 percent
Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with
hand-geared bridge, trolley and hoist # # # # # 0 percent
288 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Lateral force. The lateral force on crane runway
beams with electrically powered trolleys shall be calculated
as 20 percent of the sum of the rated capacity of the crane
and the weight of the hoist and trolley. The lateral force shall
be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a
runway beam, in either direction perpendicular to the beam,
and shall be distributed according to the lateral stiffness of
the runway beam and supporting structure.

Longitudinal force. The longitudinal force on
crane runway beams, except for bridge cranes with
hand-geared bridges, shall be calculated as 10 percent of the
maximum wheel loads of the crane. The longitudinal force
shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of
a runway beam, in either direction parallel to the beam.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.12.1

Maximum wheel load. The maximum wheel
loads shall be the wheel loads produced by the weight of the
bridge, as applicable, plus the sum of the rated capacity and
the weight of the trolley with the trolley positioned on its
runway at the location where the resulting load effect is
maximum.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.12.2

Vertical impact force. The maximum wheel
loads of the crane shall be increased by the percentages
shown below to determine the induced vertical impact or
vibration force:
Monorail cranes (powered) # # # # # # # # # 25 percent
Cab-operated or remotely operated
bridge cranes (powered) # # # # # # # # # # # 25 percent
Pendant-operated bridge cranes (powered) # 10 percent
Bridge cranes or monorail cranes with
hand-geared bridge, trolley and hoist # # # # # 0 percent
288 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
STRUCTURAL DESIGN

[edit]International Building Code 1607.12.3

Lateral force. The lateral force on crane runway
beams with electrically powered trolleys shall be calculated
as 20 percent of the sum of the rated capacity of the crane
and the weight of the hoist and trolley. The lateral force shall
be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of a
runway beam, in either direction perpendicular to the beam,
and shall be distributed according to the lateral stiffness of
the runway beam and supporting structure.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.12.4

Longitudinal force. The longitudinal force on
crane runway beams, except for bridge cranes with
hand-geared bridges, shall be calculated as 10 percent of the
maximum wheel loads of the crane. The longitudinal force
shall be assumed to act horizontally at the traction surface of
a runway beam, in either direction parallel to the beam.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.13

Interior walls and partitions. Interior walls and partitions
that exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) in height, including their
finish materials, shall have adequate strength to resist the loads
to which they are subjected but not less than a horizontal load of
5 psf (0.240 kN/m2).
Exception: Fabric partitions complying with Section
1607.13.1 shall not be required to resist the minimum horizontal
load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2).

Fabric partitions. Fabric partitions that exceed 6
feet (1829 mm) in height, including their finish materials,
shall have adequate strength to resist the following load conditions:
1. A horizontal distributed load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2)
applied to the partition framing. The total area used to
determine the distributed load shall be the area of the
fabric face between the framing members to which
the fabric is attached. The total distributed load shall
be uniformly applied to such framing members in
proportion to the length of each member.
2. A concentrated load of 40 pounds (0.176 kN) applied
to an 8-inch diameter (203 mm) area [50.3 square
inches (32 452 mm2)] of the fabric face at a height of
54 inches (1372 mm) above the floor.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.13.1

Fabric partitions. Fabric partitions that exceed 6
feet (1829 mm) in height, including their finish materials,
shall have adequate strength to resist the following load conditions:
1. A horizontal distributed load of 5 psf (0.24 kN/m2)
applied to the partition framing. The total area used to
determine the distributed load shall be the area of the
fabric face between the framing members to which
the fabric is attached. The total distributed load shall
be uniformly applied to such framing members in
proportion to the length of each member.
2. A concentrated load of 40 pounds (0.176 kN) applied
to an 8-inch diameter (203 mm) area [50.3 square
inches (32 452 mm2)] of the fabric face at a height of
54 inches (1372 mm) above the floor.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.2

Loads not specified. For occupancies or uses not designated
in Table 1607.1, the live load shall be determined in
accordance with a method approved by the building official.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.3

Uniform live loads. The live loads used in the design of
buildings and other structures shall be the maximum loads
expected by the intended use or occupancy but shall in no case
be less than the minimum uniformly distributed unit loads
required by Table 1607.1.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.4

Concentrated loads. Floors and other similar surfaces
shall be designed to support the uniformly distributed live
loads prescribed in Section 1607.3 or the concentrated load, in
pounds (kilonewtons), given in Table 1607.1, whichever produces
the greater load effects. Unless otherwise specified, the
indicated concentration shall be assumed to be uniformly distributed
over an area 2.5 feet by 2.5 feet [6.25 square feet (0.58
m2)] and shall be located so as to produce the maximum load
effects in the structural members.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.5

Partition loads. In office buildings and in other buildings
where partition locations are subject to change, provisions
for partition weight shall be made, whether or not partitions are
shown on the construction documents, unless the specified live
load exceeds 80 psf (3.83 kN/m2). The partition load shall not
be less than a uniformly distributed live load of 15 psf (0.74
kN/m2).

[edit]International Building Code 1607.6

Truck and bus garages. Minimum live loads for
garages having trucks or buses shall be as specified in Table
1607.6, but shall not be less than 50 psf (2.40 kN/m2), unless
other loads are specifically justified and approved by the building
official. Actual loads shall be used where they are greater
than the loads specified in the table.

Truck and bus garage live load application. The
concentrated load and uniform load shall be uniformly distributed
over a 10-foot (3048 mm) width on a line normal to
the centerline of the lane placed within a 12-foot-wide
(3658 mm) lane. The loads shall be placed within their individual
lanes so as to produce the maximum stress in each
structural member. Single spans shall be designed for the
uniform load in Table 1607.6 and one simultaneous concentrated
load positioned to produce the maximum effect. Multiple
spans shall be designed for the uniform load in Table
1607.6 on the spans and two simultaneous concentrated
loads in two spans positioned to produce the maximum negative
moment effect. Multiple span design loads, for other
effects, shall be the same as for single spans.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.6.1

Truck and bus garage live load application. The
concentrated load and uniform load shall be uniformly distributed
over a 10-foot (3048 mm) width on a line normal to
the centerline of the lane placed within a 12-foot-wide
(3658 mm) lane. The loads shall be placed within their individual
lanes so as to produce the maximum stress in each
structural member. Single spans shall be designed for the
uniform load in Table 1607.6 and one simultaneous concentrated
load positioned to produce the maximum effect. Multiple
spans shall be designed for the uniform load in Table
1607.6 on the spans and two simultaneous concentrated
loads in two spans positioned to produce the maximum negative
moment effect. Multiple span design loads, for other
effects, shall be the same as for single spans.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.7

Loads on handrails, guards, grab bars and vehicle
barriers. Handrails, guards, grab bars as designed in ICC
A117.1 and vehicle barriers shall be designed and constructed
to the structural loading conditions set forth in this section.

Handrails and guards. Handrail assemblies and
guards shall be designed to resist a load of 50 plf (0.73
kN/m) applied in any direction at the top and to transfer this
load through the supports to the structure. Glass handrail
assemblies and guards shall also comply with Section 2407.
Exceptions:
1. For one- and two-family dwellings, only the single
concentrated load required by Section 1607.7.1.1
shall be applied.
2. In Group I-3, F,Hand S occupancies, for areas that
are not accessible to the general public and that
have an occupant load less than 50, the minimum
load shall be 20 pounds per foot (0.29 kN/m).

Concentrated load. Handrail assemblies
and guards shall be able to resist a single concentrated
load of 200 pounds (0.89 kN), applied in any direction at
any point along the top, and have attachment devices and
supporting structure to transfer this loading to appropriate
structural elements of the building. This load need not
be assumed to act concurrently with the loads specified
in the preceding paragraph.

Components. Intermediate rails (all those
except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be
designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load
of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) on an area equal to 1 square foot
(0.093m2), including openings and space between rails.
Reactions due to this loading are not required to be
superimposed with those of Section 1607.7.1 or
1607.7.1.1.

Stress increase. Where handrails and guards
are designed in accordance with the provisions for allowable
stress design (working stress design) exclusively for
the loads specified in Section 1607.7.1, the allowable
stress for the members and their attachments are permitted
to be increased by one-third.

Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room
bench seats. Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room
bench seat systems shall be designed to resist a single concentrated
load of 250 pounds (1.11 kN) applied in any direction
at any point.
284 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 285
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
OCCUPANCY OR USE
UNIFORM
(psf)
CONCENTRATED
(lbs.)
1. Apartments (see residential) – -
2. Access floor systems
Office use
Computer use
50
100
2,000
2,000
3. Armories and drill rooms 150 -
4. Assembly areas and theaters
Fixed seats (fastened to floor)
Follow spot, projections and control
rooms
Lobbies
Movable seats
Stages and platforms
60
50
100
100
125
-
5. Balconies
On one- and two-family residences only,
and not exceeding 100 sq ft
100
60 -
6. Bowling alleys 75 -
7. Catwalks 40 300
8. Dance halls and ballrooms 100 -
9. Decks Same as
occupancy
servedh
-
10. Dining rooms and restaurants 100 -
11. Dwellings (see residential) – -
12. Cornices 60 -
13. Corridors, except as otherwise indicated 100 -
14. Elevator machine room grating
(on area of 4 in2) – 300
15. Finish light floor plate construction
(on area of 1 in2)
-
-
200
16. Fire escapes
On single-family dwellings only
100
40
-
17. Garages (passenger vehicles only)
Trucks and buses
40 Note a
See Section 1607.6
18. Grandstands (see stadium and arena
bleachers) – -
19. Gymnasiums, main floors and
balconies 100 -
20. Handrails, guards and grab bars See Section 1607.7
21. Hospitals
Corridors above first floor
Operating rooms, laboratories
Patient rooms
80
60
40
1,000
1,000
1,000
22. Hotels (see residential) – -
OCCUPANCY OR USE
UNIFORM
(psf)
CONCENTRATED
(lbs.)
23. Libraries
Corridors above first floor
Reading rooms
Stack rooms
80
60
150b
1,000
1,000
1,000
24. Manufacturing
Heavy
Light
250
125
3,000
2,000
25. Marquees 75 -
26. Office buildings
Corridors above first floor
File and computer rooms shall be
designed for heavier loads based
on anticipated occupancy
Lobbies and first-floor corridors
Offices
80
-
100
50
2,000
-
2,000
2,000
27. Penal institutions
Cell blocks
Corridors
40
100
-
28. Residential
One- and two-family dwellings
Uninhabitable attics without storagei
Uninhabitable attics with limited
storagei, j, k
Habitable attics and sleeping areas
All other areas except balconies and
decks
Hotels and multiple-family dwellings
Private rooms and corridors
serving them
Public rooms and corridors
serving them
10
20
30
40
40
100
-
29. Reviewing stands, grandstands and
bleachers Note c
30. Roofs
All roof surfaces subject to maintenance
workers
Awnings and canopies
Fabric construction supported by a
lightweight rigid skeleton structure
All other construction
Ordinary flat, pitched, and curved roofs
Primary roof members, exposed to a
work floor
Single panel point of lower chord of
roof trusses or any point along
primary structural members
supporting roofs:
Over manufacturing, storage
warehouses, and repair garages
All other occupancies
Roofs used for other special purposes
Roofs used for promenade purposes
Roofs used for roof gardens or
assembly purposes
5
nonreduceable
20
20
Note 1
60
100
300
2,000
300
Note 1
(continued)

Vehicle barriers. Vehicle barrier systems for passenger
cars shall be designed to resist a single load of 6,000
pounds (26.70 kN) applied horizontally in any direction to
the barrier system and shall have anchorage or attachment
capable of transmitting this load to the structure. For design
of the system, the load shall be assumed to act at a minimum
height of 1 foot, 6 inches (457 mm) above the floor or ramp
surface on an area not to exceed 1 square foot (305 mm2),
and is not required to be assumed to act concurrently with
any handraolil or guard loadings specified in the preceding
paragraphs of Section 1607.7.1. Garages accommodating
trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with an
approved method that contains provision for traffic railings.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.7.1

Handrails and guards. Handrail assemblies and
guards shall be designed to resist a load of 50 plf (0.73
kN/m) applied in any direction at the top and to transfer this
load through the supports to the structure. Glass handrail
assemblies and guards shall also comply with Section 2407.
Exceptions:
1. For one- and two-family dwellings, only the single
concentrated load required by Section 1607.7.1.1
shall be applied.
2. In Group I-3, F,Hand S occupancies, for areas that
are not accessible to the general public and that
have an occupant load less than 50, the minimum
load shall be 20 pounds per foot (0.29 kN/m).

Concentrated load. Handrail assemblies
and guards shall be able to resist a single concentrated
load of 200 pounds (0.89 kN), applied in any direction at
any point along the top, and have attachment devices and
supporting structure to transfer this loading to appropriate
structural elements of the building. This load need not
be assumed to act concurrently with the loads specified
in the preceding paragraph.

Components. Intermediate rails (all those
except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be
designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load
of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) on an area equal to 1 square foot
(0.093m2), including openings and space between rails.
Reactions due to this loading are not required to be
superimposed with those of Section 1607.7.1 or
1607.7.1.1.

Stress increase. Where handrails and guards
are designed in accordance with the provisions for allowable
stress design (working stress design) exclusively for
the loads specified in Section 1607.7.1, the allowable
stress for the members and their attachments are permitted
to be increased by one-third.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.7.1.1

Concentrated load. Handrail assemblies
and guards shall be able to resist a single concentrated
load of 200 pounds (0.89 kN), applied in any direction at
any point along the top, and have attachment devices and
supporting structure to transfer this loading to appropriate
structural elements of the building. This load need not
be assumed to act concurrently with the loads specified
in the preceding paragraph.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.7.1.2

Components. Intermediate rails (all those
except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be
designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load
of 50 pounds (0.22 kN) on an area equal to 1 square foot
(0.093m2), including openings and space between rails.
Reactions due to this loading are not required to be
superimposed with those of Section 1607.7.1 or
1607.7.1.1.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.7.1.3

Stress increase. Where handrails and guards
are designed in accordance with the provisions for allowable
stress design (working stress design) exclusively for
the loads specified in Section 1607.7.1, the allowable
stress for the members and their attachments are permitted
to be increased by one-third.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.7.2

Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room
bench seats. Grab bars, shower seats and dressing room
bench seat systems shall be designed to resist a single concentrated
load of 250 pounds (1.11 kN) applied in any direction
at any point.
284 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 285
STRUCTURAL DESIGN
OCCUPANCY OR USE
UNIFORM
(psf)
CONCENTRATED
(lbs.)
1. Apartments (see residential) – -
2. Access floor systems
Office use
Computer use
50
100
2,000
2,000
3. Armories and drill rooms 150 -
4. Assembly areas and theaters
Fixed seats (fastened to floor)
Follow spot, projections and control
rooms
Lobbies
Movable seats
Stages and platforms
60
50
100
100
125
-
5. Balconies
On one- and two-family residences only,
and not exceeding 100 sq ft
100
60 -
6. Bowling alleys 75 -
7. Catwalks 40 300
8. Dance halls and ballrooms 100 -
9. Decks Same as
occupancy
servedh
-
10. Dining rooms and restaurants 100 -
11. Dwellings (see residential) – -
12. Cornices 60 -
13. Corridors, except as otherwise indicated 100 -
14. Elevator machine room grating
(on area of 4 in2) – 300
15. Finish light floor plate construction
(on area of 1 in2)
-
-
200
16. Fire escapes
On single-family dwellings only
100
40
-
17. Garages (passenger vehicles only)
Trucks and buses
40 Note a
See Section 1607.6
18. Grandstands (see stadium and arena
bleachers) – -
19. Gymnasiums, main floors and
balconies 100 -
20. Handrails, guards and grab bars See Section 1607.7
21. Hospitals
Corridors above first floor
Operating rooms, laboratories
Patient rooms
80
60
40
1,000
1,000
1,000
22. Hotels (see residential) – -
OCCUPANCY OR USE
UNIFORM
(psf)
CONCENTRATED
(lbs.)
23. Libraries
Corridors above first floor
Reading rooms
Stack rooms
80
60
150b
1,000
1,000
1,000
24. Manufacturing
Heavy
Light
250
125
3,000
2,000
25. Marquees 75 -
26. Office buildings
Corridors above first floor
File and computer rooms shall be
designed for heavier loads based
on anticipated occupancy
Lobbies and first-floor corridors
Offices
80
-
100
50
2,000
-
2,000
2,000
27. Penal institutions
Cell blocks
Corridors
40
100
-
28. Residential
One- and two-family dwellings
Uninhabitable attics without storagei
Uninhabitable attics with limited
storagei, j, k
Habitable attics and sleeping areas
All other areas except balconies and
decks
Hotels and multiple-family dwellings
Private rooms and corridors
serving them
Public rooms and corridors
serving them
10
20
30
40
40
100
-
29. Reviewing stands, grandstands and
bleachers Note c
30. Roofs
All roof surfaces subject to maintenance
workers
Awnings and canopies
Fabric construction supported by a
lightweight rigid skeleton structure
All other construction
Ordinary flat, pitched, and curved roofs
Primary roof members, exposed to a
work floor
Single panel point of lower chord of
roof trusses or any point along
primary structural members
supporting roofs:
Over manufacturing, storage
warehouses, and repair garages
All other occupancies
Roofs used for other special purposes
Roofs used for promenade purposes
Roofs used for roof gardens or
assembly purposes
5
nonreduceable
20
20
Note 1
60
100
300
2,000
300
Note 1
(continued)

[edit]International Building Code 1607.7.3

Vehicle barriers. Vehicle barrier systems for passenger
cars shall be designed to resist a single load of 6,000
pounds (26.70 kN) applied horizontally in any direction to
the barrier system and shall have anchorage or attachment
capable of transmitting this load to the structure. For design
of the system, the load shall be assumed to act at a minimum
height of 1 foot, 6 inches (457 mm) above the floor or ramp
surface on an area not to exceed 1 square foot (305 mm2),
and is not required to be assumed to act concurrently with
any handraolil or guard loadings specified in the preceding
paragraphs of Section 1607.7.1. Garages accommodating
trucks and buses shall be designed in accordance with an
approved method that contains provision for traffic railings.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.8

Impact loads. The live loads specified in Section
1607.3 include allowance for impact conditions. Provisions
shall be made in the structural design for uses and loads that
involve unusual vibration and impact forces.

Elevators. Elevator loads shall be increased by
100 percent for impact and the structural supports shall be
designed within the limits of deflection prescribed by
ASME A17.1.

Machinery. For the purpose of design, the weight
of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows
to allow for impact: (1) elevator machinery, 100 percent;
(2) light machinery, shaft- or motor-driven, 20 percent;
(3) reciprocating machinery or power-driven units, 50 percent;
(4) hangers for floors or balconies, 33 percent. Percentages
shall be increased where specified by the
manufacturer.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.8.1

Elevators. Elevator loads shall be increased by
100 percent for impact and the structural supports shall be
designed within the limits of deflection prescribed by
ASME A17.1.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.8.2

Machinery. For the purpose of design, the weight
of machinery and moving loads shall be increased as follows
to allow for impact: (1) elevator machinery, 100 percent;
(2) light machinery, shaft- or motor-driven, 20 percent;
(3) reciprocating machinery or power-driven units, 50 percent;
(4) hangers for floors or balconies, 33 percent. Percentages
shall be increased where specified by the
manufacturer.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.9

Reduction in live loads. Except for roof uniform live
loads, all other minimum uniformly distributed live loads, Lo,
in Table 1607.1 are permitted to be reduced in accordance with
Section 1607.9.1 or 1607.9.2.
286 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
STRUCTURAL DESIGN

General. Subject to the limitations of Sections
1607.9.1.1 through 1607.9.1.4, members for which a value
of KLLAT is 400 square feet (37.16 m2) or more are permitted
to be designed for a reduced live load in accordance with the
following equation:
(Equation 16-24)
For SI:L L

where:
L = Reduced design live load per square foot (meter) of
area supported by the member.
Lo = Unreduced design live load per square foot (meter)
of area supported by the member (see Table 1607.1).
KLL= Live load element factor (see Table 1607.9.1).
AT = Tributary area, in square feet (square meters). L shall
not be less than 0.50Lo for members supporting one
floor and L shall not be less than 0.40Lo for members
supporting two or more floors.

Heavy live loads. Live loads that exceed 100
psf (4.79 kN/m2) shall not be reduced.
Exceptions:
1. The live loads for members supporting two or
more floors are permitted to be reduced by a
maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall
not be less than L as calculated in Section
1607.9.1.
2. For uses other than storage, where approved,
additional live load reductions shall be permitted
where shown by the registered design
professional that a rational approach has been
used and that such reductions are warranted.

Passenger vehicle garages. The live loads
shall not be reduced in passenger vehicle garages except
the live loads for members supporting two or more floors
are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent,
but the live load shall not be less than L as calculated in
Section 1607.9.1.

Special occupancies. Live loads of 100 psf
(4.79 kN/m2) or less shall not be reduced in public
assembly occupancies.

Special structural elements. Live loads
shall not be reduced for one-way slabs except as permitted
in Section 1607.9.1.1. Live loads of 100 psf (4.79
kN/m2) or less shall not be reduced for roof members
except as specified in Section 1607.11.2.

Alternate floor live load reduction. As an alternative
to Section 1607.9.1, floor live loads are permitted to
be reduced in accordance with the following provisions.
Such reductions shall apply to slab systems, beams, girders,
columns, piers, walls and foundations.
1. A reduction shall not be permitted in Group A occupancies.
2. A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load
exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) except that the design
live load for members supporting two or more floors
is permitted to be reduced by 20 percent.
3. A reduction shall not be permitted in passenger vehicle
parking garages except that the live loads for
members supporting two or more floors are permitted
to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent.
4. For live loads not exceeding 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2), the
design live load for any structural member supporting
150 square feet (13.94 m2) or more is permitted to be
reduced in accordance with the following equation:
(Equation 16-25)
For SI: R = 0.861 (A -13.94)
Such reduction shall not exceed the smallest of:
1. 40 percent for horizontal members;
2. 60 percent for vertical members; or
3. R as determined by the following equation.
(Equation 16-26)
where:
A = Area of floor supported by the member, square
feet (m2).
D = Dead load per square foot (m2) of area supported.
Lo = Unreduced live load per square foot (m2) of area
supported.
R = Reduction in percent.
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 287
STRUCTURAL DESIGN

[edit]International Building Code 1607.9.1

General. Subject to the limitations of Sections
1607.9.1.1 through 1607.9.1.4, members for which a value
of KLLAT is 400 square feet (37.16 m2) or more are permitted
to be designed for a reduced live load in accordance with the
following equation:
(Equation 16-24)
For SI:L L

where:
L = Reduced design live load per square foot (meter) of
area supported by the member.
Lo = Unreduced design live load per square foot (meter)
of area supported by the member (see Table 1607.1).
KLL= Live load element factor (see Table 1607.9.1).
AT = Tributary area, in square feet (square meters). L shall
not be less than 0.50Lo for members supporting one
floor and L shall not be less than 0.40Lo for members
supporting two or more floors.

Heavy live loads. Live loads that exceed 100
psf (4.79 kN/m2) shall not be reduced.
Exceptions:
1. The live loads for members supporting two or
more floors are permitted to be reduced by a
maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall
not be less than L as calculated in Section
1607.9.1.
2. For uses other than storage, where approved,
additional live load reductions shall be permitted
where shown by the registered design
professional that a rational approach has been
used and that such reductions are warranted.

Passenger vehicle garages. The live loads
shall not be reduced in passenger vehicle garages except
the live loads for members supporting two or more floors
are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent,
but the live load shall not be less than L as calculated in
Section 1607.9.1.

Special occupancies. Live loads of 100 psf
(4.79 kN/m2) or less shall not be reduced in public
assembly occupancies.

Special structural elements. Live loads
shall not be reduced for one-way slabs except as permitted
in Section 1607.9.1.1. Live loads of 100 psf (4.79
kN/m2) or less shall not be reduced for roof members
except as specified in Section 1607.11.2.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.9.1.1

Heavy live loads. Live loads that exceed 100
psf (4.79 kN/m2) shall not be reduced.
Exceptions:
1. The live loads for members supporting two or
more floors are permitted to be reduced by a
maximum of 20 percent, but the live load shall
not be less than L as calculated in Section
1607.9.1.
2. For uses other than storage, where approved,
additional live load reductions shall be permitted
where shown by the registered design
professional that a rational approach has been
used and that such reductions are warranted.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.9.1.2

Passenger vehicle garages. The live loads
shall not be reduced in passenger vehicle garages except
the live loads for members supporting two or more floors
are permitted to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent,
but the live load shall not be less than L as calculated in
Section 1607.9.1.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.9.1.3

Special occupancies. Live loads of 100 psf
(4.79 kN/m2) or less shall not be reduced in public
assembly occupancies.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.9.1.4

Special structural elements. Live loads
shall not be reduced for one-way slabs except as permitted
in Section 1607.9.1.1. Live loads of 100 psf (4.79
kN/m2) or less shall not be reduced for roof members
except as specified in Section 1607.11.2.

[edit]International Building Code 1607.9.2

Alternate floor live load reduction. As an alternative
to Section 1607.9.1, floor live loads are permitted to
be reduced in accordance with the following provisions.
Such reductions shall apply to slab systems, beams, girders,
columns, piers, walls and foundations.
1. A reduction shall not be permitted in Group A occupancies.
2. A reduction shall not be permitted where the live load
exceeds 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2) except that the design
live load for members supporting two or more floors
is permitted to be reduced by 20 percent.
3. A reduction shall not be permitted in passenger vehicle
parking garages except that the live loads for
members supporting two or more floors are permitted
to be reduced by a maximum of 20 percent.
4. For live loads not exceeding 100 psf (4.79 kN/m2), the
design live load for any structural member supporting
150 square feet (13.94 m2) or more is permitted to be
reduced in accordance with the following equation:
(Equation 16-25)
For SI: R = 0.861 (A -13.94)
Such reduction shall not exceed the smallest of:
1. 40 percent for horizontal members;
2. 60 percent for vertical members; or
3. R as determined by the following equation.
(Equation 16-26)
where:
A = Area of floor supported by the member, square
feet (m2).
D = Dead load per square foot (m2) of area supported.
Lo = Unreduced live load per square foot (m2) of area
supported.
R = Reduction in percent.