International Building Code Section 2308


International Building Code 2308.10

Roof and ceiling framing. The framing details
required in this section apply to roofs having a minimum slope
of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope)
or greater. Where the roof slope is less than three units vertical
in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope), members supporting
rafters and ceiling joists such as ridge board, hips and valleys
shall be designed as beams.
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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Wind uplift. Roof assemblies shall have rafter
and truss ties to the wall below. Resultant uplift loads shall
be transferred to the foundation using a continuous load
path. The rafter or truss to wall connection shall comply
with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1.

Ceiling joist spans. Allowable spans for ceiling
joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.10.2(1) or
2308.10.2(2). For other grades and species, refer to the
AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.

Rafter spans. Allowable spans for rafters shall
be in accordance with Table 2308.10.3(1), 2308.10.3(2),
2308.10.3(3), 2308.10.3(4), 2308.10.3(5) or 2308.10.3(6).
For other grades and species, refer to the AF&PA Span
Tables for Joists and Rafters.

Ceiling joist and rafter framing. Rafters shall
be framed directly opposite each other at the ridge. There
shall be a ridge board at least 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness
at ridges and not less in depth than the cut end of the rafter.
At valleys and hips, there shall be a single valley or hip
rafter not less than 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness and
not less in depth than the cut end of the rafter.

Ceiling joist and rafter connections. Ceiling
joists and rafters shall be nailed to each other and the
assembly shall be nailed to the top wall plate in accordance
with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1. Ceiling joists
shall be continuous or securely joined where they meet
over interior partitions and fastened to adjacent rafters in
accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and 2304.9.1 to provide
a continuous rafter tie across the building where
such joists are parallel to the rafters. Ceiling joists shall
have a bearing surface of not less than 11/2 inches (38
mm) on the top plate at each end.
Where ceiling joists are not parallel to rafters, an
equivalent rafter tie shall be installed in a manner to provide
a continuous tie across the building, at a spacing of
not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. The connections
shall be in accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and
2304.9.1, or connections of equivalent capacities shall be
provided. Where ceiling joists or rafter ties are not provided
at the top of the rafter support walls, the ridge
formed by these rafters shall also be supported by a
girder conforming to Section 2308.4.
Rafter ties shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219
mm) o.c. Rafter tie connections shall be based on the
equivalent rafter spacing in Table 2308.10.4.1. Where rafter
ties are spaced at 32 inches (813 mm) o.c., the number
of 16d common nails shall be two times the number specified
for rafters spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., with a
minimum of 4-16d common nails where no snow loads
are indicated. Where rafter ties are spaced at 48 inches
(1219 mm) o.c., the number of 16d common nails shall be
two times the number specified for rafters spaced 24
inches (610 mm) o.c., with aminimum of 6-16d common
nails where no snow loads are indicated. Rafter/ceiling
joist connections and rafter/tie connections shall be of sufficient
size and number to prevent splitting from nailing.
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Notches and holes. Notching at the ends of
rafters or ceiling joists shall not exceed one-fourth the
depth. Notches in the top or bottom of the rafter or ceiling
joist shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be
located in the middle one-third of the span, except that a
notch not exceeding one-third of the depth is permitted in
the top of the rafter or ceiling joist not further from the
face of the support than the depth of the member.
Holes bored in rafters or ceiling joists shall not be
within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top and bottom and their
diameter shall not exceed one-third the depth of the
member.

Framing around openings. Trimmer and
header rafters shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent
cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 4
feet (1219 mm). The ends of header rafters more than 6
feet (1829 mm) long shall be supported by framing
anchors or rafter hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition
or wall.

Purlins. Purlins to support roof loads are permitted
to be installed to reduce the span of rafters within allowable
limits and shall be supported by struts to bearing walls.
The maximum span of 2-inch by 4-inch (51mmby 102 mm)
purlins shall be 4 feet (1219 mm). The maximum span of the
2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) purlin shall be 6 feet
(1829 mm), but in no case shall the purlin be smaller than
the supported rafter. Struts shall not be smaller than 2-inch
by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) members. The unbraced
length of struts shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) and the
minimum slope of the struts shall not be less than 45 degrees
(0.79 rad) from the horizontal.

Blocking. Roof rafters and ceiling joists shall be
supported laterally to prevent rotation and lateral displacement
in accordance with the provisions of Section 2308.8.5.

Engineered wood products. Prefabricated
wood I-joists, structural glued-laminated timber and structural
composite lumber shall not be notched or drilled
except where permitted by the manufacturer’s recommendations
or where the effects of such alterations are specifically
considered in the design of the member by a registered
design professional.

Roof sheathing. Roof sheathing shall be in
accordance with Tables 2304.7(3) and 2304.7(5) for wood
structural panels, and Tables 2304.7(1) and 2304.7(2) for
lumber and shall comply with Section 2304.7.2.

Joints. Joints in lumber sheathing shall
occur over supports unless approved end-matched lumber
is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at least
two supports.

Roof planking. Planking shall be designed in
accordance with the general provisions of this code.
In lieu of such design, 2-inch (51 mm) tongue-andgroove
planking is permitted in accordance with Table
2308.10.9. Joints in such planking are permitted to be randomly
spaced, provided the system is applied to not less
than three continuous spans, planks are center matched and
end matched or splined, each plank bears on at least one support,
and joints are separated by at least 24 inches (610 mm)
in adjacent pieces.

Wood trusses. Wood trusses shall be designed
in accordance with Section 2303.4.
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Attic ventilation. For attic ventilation, see Section
1203.2.

International Building Code 2308.1

General. The requirements of this section are intended
for conventional light-frame construction. Other methods are
permitted to be used, provided a satisfactory design is submitted
showing compliance with other provisions of this code. Interior nonload-bearing partitions, ceilings and curtain walls
of conventional light-frame construction are not subject to the
limitations of this section. Alternatively, compliance with
AF&PA WFCM shall be permitted subject to the limitations
therein and the limitations of this code. Detached one- and
two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings
(townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in
height with a separate means of egress and their accessory
structures shall comply with the International Residential
Code.

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450 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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Portions exceeding limitations of conventional
construction. When portions of a building of otherwise
conventional construction exceed the limits of Section
2308.2, these portions and the supporting load path shall be
designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice
and the provisions of this code. For the purposes of this section,
the term “portions” shall mean parts of buildings containing
volume and area such as a room or a series of rooms.

International Building Code 2308.1.1

Portions exceeding limitations of conventional
construction. When portions of a building of otherwise
conventional construction exceed the limits of Section
2308.2, these portions and the supporting load path shall be
designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice
and the provisions of this code. For the purposes of this section,
the term “portions” shall mean parts of buildings containing
volume and area such as a room or a series of rooms.

International Building Code 2308.10.1

Wind uplift. Roof assemblies shall have rafter
and truss ties to the wall below. Resultant uplift loads shall
be transferred to the foundation using a continuous load
path. The rafter or truss to wall connection shall comply
with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1.

International Building Code 2308.10.10

Wood trusses. Wood trusses shall be designed
in accordance with Section 2303.4.
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International Building Code 2308.10.11

Attic ventilation. For attic ventilation, see Section
1203.2.

International Building Code 2308.10.2

Ceiling joist spans. Allowable spans for ceiling
joists shall be in accordance with Table 2308.10.2(1) or
2308.10.2(2). For other grades and species, refer to the
AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.

International Building Code 2308.10.3

Rafter spans. Allowable spans for rafters shall
be in accordance with Table 2308.10.3(1), 2308.10.3(2),
2308.10.3(3), 2308.10.3(4), 2308.10.3(5) or 2308.10.3(6).
For other grades and species, refer to the AF&PA Span
Tables for Joists and Rafters.

International Building Code 2308.10.4

Ceiling joist and rafter framing. Rafters shall
be framed directly opposite each other at the ridge. There
shall be a ridge board at least 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness
at ridges and not less in depth than the cut end of the rafter.
At valleys and hips, there shall be a single valley or hip
rafter not less than 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness and
not less in depth than the cut end of the rafter.

Ceiling joist and rafter connections. Ceiling
joists and rafters shall be nailed to each other and the
assembly shall be nailed to the top wall plate in accordance
with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1. Ceiling joists
shall be continuous or securely joined where they meet
over interior partitions and fastened to adjacent rafters in
accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and 2304.9.1 to provide
a continuous rafter tie across the building where
such joists are parallel to the rafters. Ceiling joists shall
have a bearing surface of not less than 11/2 inches (38
mm) on the top plate at each end.
Where ceiling joists are not parallel to rafters, an
equivalent rafter tie shall be installed in a manner to provide
a continuous tie across the building, at a spacing of
not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. The connections
shall be in accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and
2304.9.1, or connections of equivalent capacities shall be
provided. Where ceiling joists or rafter ties are not provided
at the top of the rafter support walls, the ridge
formed by these rafters shall also be supported by a
girder conforming to Section 2308.4.
Rafter ties shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219
mm) o.c. Rafter tie connections shall be based on the
equivalent rafter spacing in Table 2308.10.4.1. Where rafter
ties are spaced at 32 inches (813 mm) o.c., the number
of 16d common nails shall be two times the number specified
for rafters spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., with a
minimum of 4-16d common nails where no snow loads
are indicated. Where rafter ties are spaced at 48 inches
(1219 mm) o.c., the number of 16d common nails shall be
two times the number specified for rafters spaced 24
inches (610 mm) o.c., with aminimum of 6-16d common
nails where no snow loads are indicated. Rafter/ceiling
joist connections and rafter/tie connections shall be of sufficient
size and number to prevent splitting from nailing.
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Notches and holes. Notching at the ends of
rafters or ceiling joists shall not exceed one-fourth the
depth. Notches in the top or bottom of the rafter or ceiling
joist shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be
located in the middle one-third of the span, except that a
notch not exceeding one-third of the depth is permitted in
the top of the rafter or ceiling joist not further from the
face of the support than the depth of the member.
Holes bored in rafters or ceiling joists shall not be
within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top and bottom and their
diameter shall not exceed one-third the depth of the
member.

Framing around openings. Trimmer and
header rafters shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent
cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 4
feet (1219 mm). The ends of header rafters more than 6
feet (1829 mm) long shall be supported by framing
anchors or rafter hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition
or wall.

International Building Code 2308.10.4.1

Ceiling joist and rafter connections. Ceiling
joists and rafters shall be nailed to each other and the
assembly shall be nailed to the top wall plate in accordance
with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1. Ceiling joists
shall be continuous or securely joined where they meet
over interior partitions and fastened to adjacent rafters in
accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and 2304.9.1 to provide
a continuous rafter tie across the building where
such joists are parallel to the rafters. Ceiling joists shall
have a bearing surface of not less than 11/2 inches (38
mm) on the top plate at each end.
Where ceiling joists are not parallel to rafters, an
equivalent rafter tie shall be installed in a manner to provide
a continuous tie across the building, at a spacing of
not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. The connections
shall be in accordance with Tables 2308.10.4.1 and
2304.9.1, or connections of equivalent capacities shall be
provided. Where ceiling joists or rafter ties are not provided
at the top of the rafter support walls, the ridge
formed by these rafters shall also be supported by a
girder conforming to Section 2308.4.
Rafter ties shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219
mm) o.c. Rafter tie connections shall be based on the
equivalent rafter spacing in Table 2308.10.4.1. Where rafter
ties are spaced at 32 inches (813 mm) o.c., the number
of 16d common nails shall be two times the number specified
for rafters spaced 16 inches (406 mm) o.c., with a
minimum of 4-16d common nails where no snow loads
are indicated. Where rafter ties are spaced at 48 inches
(1219 mm) o.c., the number of 16d common nails shall be
two times the number specified for rafters spaced 24
inches (610 mm) o.c., with aminimum of 6-16d common
nails where no snow loads are indicated. Rafter/ceiling
joist connections and rafter/tie connections shall be of sufficient
size and number to prevent splitting from nailing.
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 469
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International Building Code 2308.10.4.2

Notches and holes. Notching at the ends of
rafters or ceiling joists shall not exceed one-fourth the
depth. Notches in the top or bottom of the rafter or ceiling
joist shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and shall not be
located in the middle one-third of the span, except that a
notch not exceeding one-third of the depth is permitted in
the top of the rafter or ceiling joist not further from the
face of the support than the depth of the member.
Holes bored in rafters or ceiling joists shall not be
within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top and bottom and their
diameter shall not exceed one-third the depth of the
member.

International Building Code 2308.10.4.3

Framing around openings. Trimmer and
header rafters shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent
cross section, where the span of the header exceeds 4
feet (1219 mm). The ends of header rafters more than 6
feet (1829 mm) long shall be supported by framing
anchors or rafter hangers unless bearing on a beam, partition
or wall.

International Building Code 2308.10.5

Purlins. Purlins to support roof loads are permitted
to be installed to reduce the span of rafters within allowable
limits and shall be supported by struts to bearing walls.
The maximum span of 2-inch by 4-inch (51mmby 102 mm)
purlins shall be 4 feet (1219 mm). The maximum span of the
2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) purlin shall be 6 feet
(1829 mm), but in no case shall the purlin be smaller than
the supported rafter. Struts shall not be smaller than 2-inch
by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) members. The unbraced
length of struts shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) and the
minimum slope of the struts shall not be less than 45 degrees
(0.79 rad) from the horizontal.

International Building Code 2308.10.6

Blocking. Roof rafters and ceiling joists shall be
supported laterally to prevent rotation and lateral displacement
in accordance with the provisions of Section 2308.8.5.

International Building Code 2308.10.7

Engineered wood products. Prefabricated
wood I-joists, structural glued-laminated timber and structural
composite lumber shall not be notched or drilled
except where permitted by the manufacturer’s recommendations
or where the effects of such alterations are specifically
considered in the design of the member by a registered
design professional.

International Building Code 2308.10.8

Roof sheathing. Roof sheathing shall be in
accordance with Tables 2304.7(3) and 2304.7(5) for wood
structural panels, and Tables 2304.7(1) and 2304.7(2) for
lumber and shall comply with Section 2304.7.2.

Joints. Joints in lumber sheathing shall
occur over supports unless approved end-matched lumber
is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at least
two supports.

International Building Code 2308.10.8.1

Joints. Joints in lumber sheathing shall
occur over supports unless approved end-matched lumber
is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at least
two supports.

International Building Code 2308.10.9

Roof planking. Planking shall be designed in
accordance with the general provisions of this code.
In lieu of such design, 2-inch (51 mm) tongue-andgroove
planking is permitted in accordance with Table
2308.10.9. Joints in such planking are permitted to be randomly
spaced, provided the system is applied to not less
than three continuous spans, planks are center matched and
end matched or splined, each plank bears on at least one support,
and joints are separated by at least 24 inches (610 mm)
in adjacent pieces.

International Building Code 2308.11

Additional requirements for conventional construction
in Seismic Design Category B or C. Structures of
conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category
B or C, as determined in Section 1613, shall comply with
Sections 2308.11.1 through 2308.11.3, in addition to the provisions
of Sections 2308.1 through 2308.10.

Number of stories. Structures of conventional
light-frame construction shall not exceed two stories in
height in Seismic Design Category C.

Concrete or masonry. Concrete or masonry
walls or masonry veneer shall not extend above the basement.
Exceptions:
1. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first
two stories above grade plane or the first three stories
above grade plane where the lowest story has
concrete or masonry walls in Seismic Design Category
B, provided that structural use panel wall
bracing is used and the length of bracing provided
is one- and one-half times the required length as
determined in Table 2308.9.3(1).
2. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first
story above grade plane or the first two stories
above grade plane where the lowest story has concrete
or masonry walls in Seismic Design Category
B or C.
3. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first
two stories above grade plane in SeismicDesignCategories
B and C, provided the following criteria are
met:
3.1. Type of brace per Section 2308.9.3 shall be
Method 3 and the allowable shear capacity
in accordance with Table 2306.4.1 shall be
a minimum of 350 plf (5108 N/m).
3.2. The bracing of the top story shall be
located at each end and at least every 25
feet (7620 mm) o.c. but not less than 40
percent of the braced wall line. The bracing
of the first story shall be located at each end
and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) o.c.
but not less than 35 percent of the braced
wall line.
3.3. Hold-down connectors shall be provided at
the ends of braced walls for the second
floor to first floor wall assembly with an
allowable design of 2,000 pounds (8896
N). Hold-down connectors shall be provided
at the ends of each wall segment of
the braced walls for the first floor to foundation
with an allowable design of 3,900
pounds (17 347 N). In all cases, the
hold-down connector force shall be transferred
to the foundation.
3.4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.

Framing and connection details. Framing and
connection details shall conform to Sections 2308.11.3.1
through 2308.11.3.3.

Anchorage. Braced wall lines shall be
anchored in accordance with Section 2308.6 at foundations.
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 489
WOOD
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.11.3.2
STEPPED FOOTING CONNECTION DETAILS
?

Stepped footings. Where the height of a
required braced wall panel extending from foundation to
floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the following
construction shall be used:
1. Where the bottom of the footing is stepped and the
lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted
to the footings, the sill shall be anchored as
required in Section 2308.3.3.
2. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a
sill bolted to a footing not less than 8 feet (2438
mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall
be considered to be braced. The double plate of the
cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing
extending to the lowest framed floor shall be
spliced to the sill plate with metal ties, one on each
side of the sill and plate. The metal ties shall not be
less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16 galvanized
gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide by 48 inches
(1219 mm) with eight 16d common nails on each
side of the splice location (see Figure
2308.11.3.2). The metal tie shall have a minimum
yield of 33,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (227
MPa).
3. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the
footing and the lowest floor framing, the bracing
requirements for a story shall apply.

Openings in horizontal diaphragms.
Openings in horizontal diaphragms with a dimension
perpendicular to the joist that is greater than 4 feet (1.2
m) shall be constructed in accordance with the following:
1. Blocking shall be provided beyond headers.
2. Metal ties not less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16
galvanized gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide
with eight 16d common nails on each side of the
header-joist intersection shall be provided (see
Figure 2308.11.3.3). The metal ties shall have a
minimum yield of 33,000 psi (227 MPa).

International Building Code 2308.11.1

Number of stories. Structures of conventional
light-frame construction shall not exceed two stories in
height in Seismic Design Category C.

International Building Code 2308.11.2

Concrete or masonry. Concrete or masonry
walls or masonry veneer shall not extend above the basement.
Exceptions:
1. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first
two stories above grade plane or the first three stories
above grade plane where the lowest story has
concrete or masonry walls in Seismic Design Category
B, provided that structural use panel wall
bracing is used and the length of bracing provided
is one- and one-half times the required length as
determined in Table 2308.9.3(1).
2. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first
story above grade plane or the first two stories
above grade plane where the lowest story has concrete
or masonry walls in Seismic Design Category
B or C.
3. Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in the first
two stories above grade plane in SeismicDesignCategories
B and C, provided the following criteria are
met:
3.1. Type of brace per Section 2308.9.3 shall be
Method 3 and the allowable shear capacity
in accordance with Table 2306.4.1 shall be
a minimum of 350 plf (5108 N/m).
3.2. The bracing of the top story shall be
located at each end and at least every 25
feet (7620 mm) o.c. but not less than 40
percent of the braced wall line. The bracing
of the first story shall be located at each end
and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) o.c.
but not less than 35 percent of the braced
wall line.
3.3. Hold-down connectors shall be provided at
the ends of braced walls for the second
floor to first floor wall assembly with an
allowable design of 2,000 pounds (8896
N). Hold-down connectors shall be provided
at the ends of each wall segment of
the braced walls for the first floor to foundation
with an allowable design of 3,900
pounds (17 347 N). In all cases, the
hold-down connector force shall be transferred
to the foundation.
3.4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.

International Building Code 2308.11.3

Framing and connection details. Framing and
connection details shall conform to Sections 2308.11.3.1
through 2308.11.3.3.

Anchorage. Braced wall lines shall be
anchored in accordance with Section 2308.6 at foundations.
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 489
WOOD
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.11.3.2
STEPPED FOOTING CONNECTION DETAILS
?

Stepped footings. Where the height of a
required braced wall panel extending from foundation to
floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the following
construction shall be used:
1. Where the bottom of the footing is stepped and the
lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted
to the footings, the sill shall be anchored as
required in Section 2308.3.3.
2. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a
sill bolted to a footing not less than 8 feet (2438
mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall
be considered to be braced. The double plate of the
cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing
extending to the lowest framed floor shall be
spliced to the sill plate with metal ties, one on each
side of the sill and plate. The metal ties shall not be
less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16 galvanized
gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide by 48 inches
(1219 mm) with eight 16d common nails on each
side of the splice location (see Figure
2308.11.3.2). The metal tie shall have a minimum
yield of 33,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (227
MPa).
3. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the
footing and the lowest floor framing, the bracing
requirements for a story shall apply.

Openings in horizontal diaphragms.
Openings in horizontal diaphragms with a dimension
perpendicular to the joist that is greater than 4 feet (1.2
m) shall be constructed in accordance with the following:
1. Blocking shall be provided beyond headers.
2. Metal ties not less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16
galvanized gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide
with eight 16d common nails on each side of the
header-joist intersection shall be provided (see
Figure 2308.11.3.3). The metal ties shall have a
minimum yield of 33,000 psi (227 MPa).

International Building Code 2308.11.3.1

Anchorage. Braced wall lines shall be
anchored in accordance with Section 2308.6 at foundations.
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 489
WOOD
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.11.3.2
STEPPED FOOTING CONNECTION DETAILS
?

International Building Code 2308.11.3.2

Stepped footings. Where the height of a
required braced wall panel extending from foundation to
floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the following
construction shall be used:
1. Where the bottom of the footing is stepped and the
lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted
to the footings, the sill shall be anchored as
required in Section 2308.3.3.
2. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a
sill bolted to a footing not less than 8 feet (2438
mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall
be considered to be braced. The double plate of the
cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing
extending to the lowest framed floor shall be
spliced to the sill plate with metal ties, one on each
side of the sill and plate. The metal ties shall not be
less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16 galvanized
gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide by 48 inches
(1219 mm) with eight 16d common nails on each
side of the splice location (see Figure
2308.11.3.2). The metal tie shall have a minimum
yield of 33,000 pounds per square inch (psi) (227
MPa).
3. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the
footing and the lowest floor framing, the bracing
requirements for a story shall apply.

International Building Code 2308.11.3.3

Openings in horizontal diaphragms.
Openings in horizontal diaphragms with a dimension
perpendicular to the joist that is greater than 4 feet (1.2
m) shall be constructed in accordance with the following:
1. Blocking shall be provided beyond headers.
2. Metal ties not less than 0.058 inch [1.47 mm (16
galvanized gage)] by 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide
with eight 16d common nails on each side of the
header-joist intersection shall be provided (see
Figure 2308.11.3.3). The metal ties shall have a
minimum yield of 33,000 psi (227 MPa).

International Building Code 2308.12

Additional requirements for conventional construction
in Seismic Design Category D or E. Structures of
conventional light-frame construction in Seismic Design Category
D or E, as determined in Section 1613, shall conform to
Sections 2308.12.1 through 2308.12.9, in addition to the
requirements for Seismic Design Category B or C in Section
2308.11.

Number of stories. Structures of conventional
light-frame construction shall not exceed one story in height
in Seismic Design Category D or E.

Concrete or masonry. Concrete or masonry
walls or masonry veneer shall not extend above the basement.
Exception: Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in
the first story above grade plane in Seismic Design Category
D, provided the following criteria are met:
1. Type of brace in accordance with Section 2308.9.3
shall be Method 3 and the allowable shear capacity
in accordance with Table 2306.4.1 shall be a minimum
of 350 plf (5108 N/m).
2. The bracing of the first story shall be located at
each end and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) o.c.
but not less than 45 percent of the braced wall line.
3. Hold-down connectors shall be provided at the
ends of braced walls for the first floor to foundation
with an allowable design of 2,100 pounds
(9341 N).
4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.
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For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.11.3.3
OPENINGS IN HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS
?

Braced wall line spacing. Spacing between interior
and exterior braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet
(7620 mm).

Braced wall line sheathing. Braced wall lines
shall be braced by one of the types of sheathing prescribed
by Table 2308.12.4 as shown in Figure 2308.9.3. The sum
of lengths of braced wall panels at each braced wall line
shall conform to Table 2308.12.4. Braced wall panels shall
be distributed along the length of the braced wall line and
start at not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of the
braced wall line. Panel sheathing joints shall occur over
studs or blocking. Sheathing shall be fastened to studs, top
and bottom plates and at panel edges occurring over blocking.
Wall framing to which sheathing used for bracing is
applied shall be nominal 2 inch wide [actual 11/2 inch (38
mm)] or larger members.
Cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches
(356 mm) shall be considered a story for the purpose of this
section and shall be braced as required for braced wall lines
in accordance with Table 2308.12.4. Where interior braced
wall lines occur without a continuous foundation below, the
length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing shall be one
and one-half times the lengths required by Table 2308.12.4.
Where the cripplewall sheathing type used is Type S-W and
this additional length of bracing cannot be provided, the
capacity of Type S-W sheathing shall be increased by reducing
the spacing of fasteners along the perimeter of each
piece of sheathing to 4 inches (102 mm) o.c.

Attachment of sheathing. Fastening of braced
wall panel sheathing shall not be less than that prescribed in
Table 2308.12.4 or 2304.9.1. Wall sheathing shall not be
attached to framing members by adhesives.

Irregular structures. Conventional light-frame
construction shall not be used in irregular portions of structures
in Seismic Design Category D or E. Such irregular
portions of structures shall be designed to resist the forces
specified in Chapter 16 to the extent such irregular features
affect the performance of the conventional framing system.
A portion of a structure shall be considered to be irregular
where one or more of the conditions described in Items 1
through 6 below are present.
1. Where exterior braced wall panels are not in one plane
vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story
in which they are required, the structure shall be considered
to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(1)].
Exception: Floors with cantilevers or setbacks not
exceeding four times the nominal depth of the
floor joists [see Figure 2308.12.6(2)] are permitted
to support braced wall panels provided:
1. Floor joists are 2 inches by 10 inches (51mm
by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more
than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c.
2. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is
at least 2:1.
3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are
doubled.
4. A continuous rim joist is connected to the
ends of cantilevered joists. The rim joist is
permitted to be spliced using a metal tie not
less than 0.058 inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized
gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide
fastened with six 16d common nails on each
side. The metal tie shall have a minimum
yield of 33,000 psi (227 MPa).
5. Joists at setbacks or the end of cantilevered
joists shall not carry gravity loads from more
than a single story having uniform wall and
roof loads, nor carry the reactions from
headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or
more.
2. Where a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported
by braced wall lines on all edges, the structure
shall be considered to be irregular [see Figure
2308.12.6(3)].
Exception: Portions of roofs or floors that do not
support braced wall panels above are permitted to
extend up to 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a braced
wall line [see Figure 2308.12.6(4)].
3. Where the end of a required braced wall panel extends
more than 1 foot (305 mm)over an opening in the wall
below, the structure shall be considered to be irregular.
This requirement is applicable to braced wall panels
offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out
of plane as permitted by the exception to Item 1 above
in this section [see Figure 2308.12.6(5)].
Exception: Braced wall panels are permitted to
extend over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438
mm) in width where the header is a 4-inch by
12-inch (102 mm by 305 mm) or larger member.
4. Where portions of a floor level are vertically offset
such that the framing members on either side of the
offset cannot be lapped or tied together in an
approved manner, the structure shall be considered to
be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(6)].
Exception: Framing supported directly by foundations
need not be lapped or tied directly together.
5. Where braced wall lines are not perpendicular to each
other, the structure shall be considered to be irregular
[see Figure 2308.12.6(7)].
6. Where openings in floor and roof diaphragms having
a maximum dimension greater than 50 percent of the
distance between lines of bracing or an area greater
than 25 percent of the area between orthogonal pairs
of braced wall lines are present, the structure shall be
considered to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(8)].

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Anchorage of exterior means of egress components.
Exterior egress balconies, exterior exit stairways and
similar means of egress components shall be positively
anchored to the primary structure at not over 8 feet (2438
mm) o.c. or shall be designed for lateral forces. Such attachment
shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails
subject to withdrawal.

Steel plate washers. Steel plate washers shall be
placed between the foundation sill plate and the nut. Such
washers shall be a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3
inches (5.82 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size. The hole in
the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a
width of up to 3/16 inch (4.76 mm) larger than the bolt diameter
and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided
a standard cut washer is placed between the plate
washer and the nut.

Anchorage in Seismic Design Category E.
Steel bolts with a minimum nominal diameter of 5/8 inch
(15.9 mm) shall be used in Seismic Design Category E.
492 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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FIGURE 2308.12.6(1)
BRACED WALL PANELS OUT OF PLANE
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.12.6(2)
BRACED WALL PANELS SUPPORTED BY CANTILEVER OR SET BACK
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FIGURE 2308.12.6(3)
FLOOR OR ROOF NOT SUPPORTED ON ALL EDGES
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.12.6(5)
BRACED WALL PANEL EXTENSION OVER OPENING
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.12.6(4)
ROOF OR FLOOR EXTENSION BEYOND BRACED WALL LINE
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FIGURE 2308.12.6(6)
PORTIONS OF FLOOR LEVEL OFFSET VERTICALLY
FIGURE 2308.12.6(8)
OPENING LIMITATIONS FOR FLOOR AND ROOF DIAPHRAGMS
FIGURE 2308.12.6(7)
BRACED WALL LINES NOT PERPENDICULAR

International Building Code 2308.12.1

Number of stories. Structures of conventional
light-frame construction shall not exceed one story in height
in Seismic Design Category D or E.

International Building Code 2308.12.2

Concrete or masonry. Concrete or masonry
walls or masonry veneer shall not extend above the basement.
Exception: Masonry veneer is permitted to be used in
the first story above grade plane in Seismic Design Category
D, provided the following criteria are met:
1. Type of brace in accordance with Section 2308.9.3
shall be Method 3 and the allowable shear capacity
in accordance with Table 2306.4.1 shall be a minimum
of 350 plf (5108 N/m).
2. The bracing of the first story shall be located at
each end and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) o.c.
but not less than 45 percent of the braced wall line.
3. Hold-down connectors shall be provided at the
ends of braced walls for the first floor to foundation
with an allowable design of 2,100 pounds
(9341 N).
4. Cripple walls shall not be permitted.
490 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.11.3.3
OPENINGS IN HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS
?

International Building Code 2308.12.3

Braced wall line spacing. Spacing between interior
and exterior braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet
(7620 mm).

International Building Code 2308.12.4

Braced wall line sheathing. Braced wall lines
shall be braced by one of the types of sheathing prescribed
by Table 2308.12.4 as shown in Figure 2308.9.3. The sum
of lengths of braced wall panels at each braced wall line
shall conform to Table 2308.12.4. Braced wall panels shall
be distributed along the length of the braced wall line and
start at not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of the
braced wall line. Panel sheathing joints shall occur over
studs or blocking. Sheathing shall be fastened to studs, top
and bottom plates and at panel edges occurring over blocking.
Wall framing to which sheathing used for bracing is
applied shall be nominal 2 inch wide [actual 11/2 inch (38
mm)] or larger members.
Cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches
(356 mm) shall be considered a story for the purpose of this
section and shall be braced as required for braced wall lines
in accordance with Table 2308.12.4. Where interior braced
wall lines occur without a continuous foundation below, the
length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing shall be one
and one-half times the lengths required by Table 2308.12.4.
Where the cripplewall sheathing type used is Type S-W and
this additional length of bracing cannot be provided, the
capacity of Type S-W sheathing shall be increased by reducing
the spacing of fasteners along the perimeter of each
piece of sheathing to 4 inches (102 mm) o.c.

International Building Code 2308.12.5

Attachment of sheathing. Fastening of braced
wall panel sheathing shall not be less than that prescribed in
Table 2308.12.4 or 2304.9.1. Wall sheathing shall not be
attached to framing members by adhesives.

International Building Code 2308.12.6

Irregular structures. Conventional light-frame
construction shall not be used in irregular portions of structures
in Seismic Design Category D or E. Such irregular
portions of structures shall be designed to resist the forces
specified in Chapter 16 to the extent such irregular features
affect the performance of the conventional framing system.
A portion of a structure shall be considered to be irregular
where one or more of the conditions described in Items 1
through 6 below are present.
1. Where exterior braced wall panels are not in one plane
vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story
in which they are required, the structure shall be considered
to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(1)].
Exception: Floors with cantilevers or setbacks not
exceeding four times the nominal depth of the
floor joists [see Figure 2308.12.6(2)] are permitted
to support braced wall panels provided:
1. Floor joists are 2 inches by 10 inches (51mm
by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more
than 16 inches (406 mm) o.c.
2. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is
at least 2:1.
3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are
doubled.
4. A continuous rim joist is connected to the
ends of cantilevered joists. The rim joist is
permitted to be spliced using a metal tie not
less than 0.058 inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized
gage) and 11/2 inches (38 mm) wide
fastened with six 16d common nails on each
side. The metal tie shall have a minimum
yield of 33,000 psi (227 MPa).
5. Joists at setbacks or the end of cantilevered
joists shall not carry gravity loads from more
than a single story having uniform wall and
roof loads, nor carry the reactions from
headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or
more.
2. Where a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported
by braced wall lines on all edges, the structure
shall be considered to be irregular [see Figure
2308.12.6(3)].
Exception: Portions of roofs or floors that do not
support braced wall panels above are permitted to
extend up to 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a braced
wall line [see Figure 2308.12.6(4)].
3. Where the end of a required braced wall panel extends
more than 1 foot (305 mm)over an opening in the wall
below, the structure shall be considered to be irregular.
This requirement is applicable to braced wall panels
offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out
of plane as permitted by the exception to Item 1 above
in this section [see Figure 2308.12.6(5)].
Exception: Braced wall panels are permitted to
extend over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438
mm) in width where the header is a 4-inch by
12-inch (102 mm by 305 mm) or larger member.
4. Where portions of a floor level are vertically offset
such that the framing members on either side of the
offset cannot be lapped or tied together in an
approved manner, the structure shall be considered to
be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(6)].
Exception: Framing supported directly by foundations
need not be lapped or tied directly together.
5. Where braced wall lines are not perpendicular to each
other, the structure shall be considered to be irregular
[see Figure 2308.12.6(7)].
6. Where openings in floor and roof diaphragms having
a maximum dimension greater than 50 percent of the
distance between lines of bracing or an area greater
than 25 percent of the area between orthogonal pairs
of braced wall lines are present, the structure shall be
considered to be irregular [see Figure 2308.12.6(8)].

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International Building Code 2308.12.7

Anchorage of exterior means of egress components.
Exterior egress balconies, exterior exit stairways and
similar means of egress components shall be positively
anchored to the primary structure at not over 8 feet (2438
mm) o.c. or shall be designed for lateral forces. Such attachment
shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails
subject to withdrawal.

International Building Code 2308.12.8

Steel plate washers. Steel plate washers shall be
placed between the foundation sill plate and the nut. Such
washers shall be a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3
inches (5.82 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size. The hole in
the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a
width of up to 3/16 inch (4.76 mm) larger than the bolt diameter
and a slot length not to exceed 13/4 inches (44 mm), provided
a standard cut washer is placed between the plate
washer and the nut.

International Building Code 2308.12.9

Anchorage in Seismic Design Category E.
Steel bolts with a minimum nominal diameter of 5/8 inch
(15.9 mm) shall be used in Seismic Design Category E.
492 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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FIGURE 2308.12.6(1)
BRACED WALL PANELS OUT OF PLANE
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.12.6(2)
BRACED WALL PANELS SUPPORTED BY CANTILEVER OR SET BACK
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FIGURE 2308.12.6(3)
FLOOR OR ROOF NOT SUPPORTED ON ALL EDGES
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.12.6(5)
BRACED WALL PANEL EXTENSION OVER OPENING
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.12.6(4)
ROOF OR FLOOR EXTENSION BEYOND BRACED WALL LINE
494 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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FIGURE 2308.12.6(6)
PORTIONS OF FLOOR LEVEL OFFSET VERTICALLY
FIGURE 2308.12.6(8)
OPENING LIMITATIONS FOR FLOOR AND ROOF DIAPHRAGMS
FIGURE 2308.12.6(7)
BRACED WALL LINES NOT PERPENDICULAR

International Building Code 2308.2

Limitations. Buildings are permitted to be constructed
in accordance with the provisions of conventional light-frame
construction, subject to the following limitations, and to further
limitations of Sections 2308.11 and 2308.12.
1. Buildings shall be limited to a maximum of three stories
above grade. For the purposes of this section, for buildings
in Seismic Design Category D or E as determined in
Section 1613, cripple stud walls shall be considered to be
a story.
Exception: Solid blocked cripplewalls not exceeding
14 inches (356 mm)in height need not be considered a
story.
2. Bearing wall floor-to-floor heights shall not exceed a
stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm) plus a height of floor
framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
3. Loads as determined in Chapter 16 shall not exceed the
following:
3.1. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 psf (718
N/m2) for combined roof and ceiling, exterior
walls, floors and partitions.
Exceptions:
1. Subject to the limitations of Sections
2308.11.2 and 2308.12.2, stone or masonry
veneer up to the lesser of 5 inches (127 mm)
thick or 50 psf (2395 N/m2) and installed in
accordance with Chapter 14 is permitted to a
height of 30 feet (9144 mm) above a
noncombustible foundation, with an additional
8 feet (2438 mm) permitted for gable
ends.
2. Concrete or masonry fireplaces, heaters and
chimneys shall be permitted in accordance
with the provisions of this code.
3.2. Live loads shall not exceed 40 psf (1916 N/m2)
for floors.
3.3. Ground snow loads shall not exceed 50 psf (2395
N/m2).
4. Wind speeds shall not exceed 100 miles per hour (mph)
(44 m/s) (3-second gust).
Exception: Wind speeds shall not exceed 110 mph
(48.4 m/s) (3-second gust) for buildings in Exposure
Category B.
5. Roof trusses and rafters shall not span more than 40 feet
(12 192 mm) between points of vertical support.
6. The use of the provisions for conventional light-frame
construction in this section shall not be permitted for
Occupancy Category IV buildings assigned to Seismic
Design Category B, C, D, E or F, as determined in Section
1613.
7. Conventional light-frame construction is limited in
irregular structures in Seismic Design Category D or E,
as specified in Section 2308.12.6.

Basic wind speed greater than 100 mph (3-second
gust). Where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 mph
(3-second gust), the provisions of eitherAF&PAWFCM,or
the SBCCI SSTD 10 are permitted to be used.

Buildings in Seismic Design Category B, C,Dor
E. Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in
Seismic Design Category B or C, as determined in Section
1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section
2308.11.
Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in
Seismic Design Category D or E, as determined in Section
1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section
2308.12.

International Building Code 2308.2.1

Basic wind speed greater than 100 mph (3-second
gust). Where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 mph
(3-second gust), the provisions of eitherAF&PAWFCM,or
the SBCCI SSTD 10 are permitted to be used.

International Building Code 2308.2.2

Buildings in Seismic Design Category B, C,Dor
E. Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in
Seismic Design Category B or C, as determined in Section
1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section
2308.11.
Buildings of conventional light-frame construction in
Seismic Design Category D or E, as determined in Section
1613, shall comply with the additional requirements in Section
2308.12.

International Building Code 2308.3

Braced wall lines. Buildings shall be provided with
exterior and interior braced wall lines as described in Section
2308.9.3 and installed in accordance with Sections 2308.3.1
through 2308.3.4.

Spacing. Spacing of braced wall lines shall not
exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) o.c. in both the longitudinal and
transverse directions in each story.

Braced wall panel connections. Forces shall be
transferred from the roofs and floors to braced wall panels
and from the braced wall panels in upper stories to the
braced wall panels in the story below by the following:
1. Braced wall panel top and bottom plates shall be fastened
to joists, rafters or full-depth blocking. Braced
wall panels shall be extended and fastened to roof
framing at intervals not to exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm)
between parallel braced wall lines.
Exception: Where roof trusses are used, lateral
forces shall be transferred from the roof diaphragm
to the braced wall by blocking of the ends
of the trusses or by other approved methods.
2. Bottom plate fastening to joist or blocking below shall
be with not less than 3-16d nails at 16 inches (406
mm) o.c.
3. Blocking shall be nailed to the top plate below with
not less than 3-8d toenails per block.
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4. Joists parallel to the top plates shall be nailed to the
top plate with not less than 8d toenails at 6 inches (152
mm) o.c.
In addition, top plate laps shall be nailed with not less
than 8-16d face nails on each side of each break in the top
plate.

Sill anchorage. Where foundations are required
by Section 2308.3.4, braced wall line sills shall be anchored
to concrete or masonry foundations. Such anchorage shall
conform to the requirements of Section 2308.6 except that
such anchors shall be spaced at not more than 4 feet (1219
mm) o.c. for structures over two stories in height. The
anchors shall be distributed along the length of the braced
wall line. Other anchorage devices having equivalent capacity
are permitted.

Anchorage to all-wood foundations. Where
all-wood foundations are used, the force transfer from
the braced wall lines shall be determined based on calculation
and shall have a capacity greater than or equal to
the connections required by Section 2308.3.3.

Braced wall line support. Braced wall lines shall
be supported by continuous foundations.
Exception: For structures with a maximum plan dimension
not over 50 feet (15 240 mm), continuous foundations
are required at exterior walls only.

International Building Code 2308.3.1

Spacing. Spacing of braced wall lines shall not
exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) o.c. in both the longitudinal and
transverse directions in each story.

International Building Code 2308.3.2

Braced wall panel connections. Forces shall be
transferred from the roofs and floors to braced wall panels
and from the braced wall panels in upper stories to the
braced wall panels in the story below by the following:
1. Braced wall panel top and bottom plates shall be fastened
to joists, rafters or full-depth blocking. Braced
wall panels shall be extended and fastened to roof
framing at intervals not to exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm)
between parallel braced wall lines.
Exception: Where roof trusses are used, lateral
forces shall be transferred from the roof diaphragm
to the braced wall by blocking of the ends
of the trusses or by other approved methods.
2. Bottom plate fastening to joist or blocking below shall
be with not less than 3-16d nails at 16 inches (406
mm) o.c.
3. Blocking shall be nailed to the top plate below with
not less than 3-8d toenails per block.
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4. Joists parallel to the top plates shall be nailed to the
top plate with not less than 8d toenails at 6 inches (152
mm) o.c.
In addition, top plate laps shall be nailed with not less
than 8-16d face nails on each side of each break in the top
plate.

International Building Code 2308.3.3

Sill anchorage. Where foundations are required
by Section 2308.3.4, braced wall line sills shall be anchored
to concrete or masonry foundations. Such anchorage shall
conform to the requirements of Section 2308.6 except that
such anchors shall be spaced at not more than 4 feet (1219
mm) o.c. for structures over two stories in height. The
anchors shall be distributed along the length of the braced
wall line. Other anchorage devices having equivalent capacity
are permitted.

Anchorage to all-wood foundations. Where
all-wood foundations are used, the force transfer from
the braced wall lines shall be determined based on calculation
and shall have a capacity greater than or equal to
the connections required by Section 2308.3.3.

International Building Code 2308.3.3.1

Anchorage to all-wood foundations. Where
all-wood foundations are used, the force transfer from
the braced wall lines shall be determined based on calculation
and shall have a capacity greater than or equal to
the connections required by Section 2308.3.3.

International Building Code 2308.3.4

Braced wall line support. Braced wall lines shall
be supported by continuous foundations.
Exception: For structures with a maximum plan dimension
not over 50 feet (15 240 mm), continuous foundations
are required at exterior walls only.

International Building Code 2308.4

Design of elements. Combining of engineered elements
or systems and conventionally specified elements or systems
is permitted subject to the following limits:

Elements exceeding limitations of conventional
construction. When a building of otherwise conventional
construction contains structural elements exceeding the
limits of Section 2308.2, these elements and the supporting
load path shall be designed in accordance with accepted
engineering practice and the provisions of this code.

Structural elements or systems not described
herein. When a building of otherwise conventional construction
contains structural elements or systems not
described in Section 2308, these elements or systems shall
be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice
and the provisions of this code. The extent of such
design need only demonstrate compliance of the
nonconventional elements with other applicable provisions
of this code and shall be compatible with the performance of
the conventionally framed system.

International Building Code 2308.4.1

Elements exceeding limitations of conventional
construction. When a building of otherwise conventional
construction contains structural elements exceeding the
limits of Section 2308.2, these elements and the supporting
load path shall be designed in accordance with accepted
engineering practice and the provisions of this code.

International Building Code 2308.4.2

Structural elements or systems not described
herein. When a building of otherwise conventional construction
contains structural elements or systems not
described in Section 2308, these elements or systems shall
be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice
and the provisions of this code. The extent of such
design need only demonstrate compliance of the
nonconventional elements with other applicable provisions
of this code and shall be compatible with the performance of
the conventionally framed system.

International Building Code 2308.5

Connections and fasteners. Connections and fasteners
used in conventional construction shall comply with the
requirements of Section 2304.9.

International Building Code 2308.6

Foundation plates or sills. Foundations and footings
shall be as specified in Chapter 18. Foundation plates or sills
resting on concrete or masonry foundations shall comply with
Section 2304.3.1. Foundation plates or sills shall be bolted or
anchored to the foundation with not less than 1/2-inch-diameter
(12.7 mm) steel bolts or approved anchors. Bolts shall be
embedded at least 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or masonry,
and spaced not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) apart. There shall
be a minimum of two bolts or anchor straps per piece with one
bolt or anchor strap located not more than 12 inches (305 mm)
or less than 4 inches (102 mm) from each end of each piece. A
properly sized nut andwasher shall be tightened on each bolt to
the plate.

International Building Code 2308.7

Girders. Girders for single-story construction or girders
supporting loads from a single floor shall not be less than 4
inches by 6 inches (102 mmby 152 mm) for spans 6 feet (1829
mm) or less, provided that girders are spaced not more than 8
feet (2438 mm) o.c. Spans for built-up 2-inch (51 mm) girders
shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.5 or 2308.9.6. Other
girders shall be designed to support the loads specified in this
code. Girder end joints shall occur over supports.
Where a girder is spliced over a support, an adequate tie shall
be provided. The ends of beams or girders supported on
masonry or concrete shall not have less than 3 inches (76 mm)
of bearing.

International Building Code 2308.8

Floor joists. Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance
with Table 2308.8(1) or 2308.8(2). For other grades and
or species, refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.

Bearing. Except where supported on a 1-inch by
4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the
adjoining stud, the ends of each joist shall not have less than
11/2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal, or less
than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry.

Framing details. Joists shall be supported laterally
at the ends and at each support by solid blocking except
where the ends of the joists are nailed to a header, band or
rim joist or to an adjoining stud or by other means. Solid
blocking shall not be less than 2 inches (51mm) in thickness
and the full depth of the joist. Notches on the ends of joists
shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in
joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom
of the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not
exceed one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or
bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and
shall not be located in the middle third of the span.
Joist framing from opposite sides of a beam, girder or
partition shall be lapped at least 3 inches (76 mm) or the
opposing joists shall be tied together in an approved manner.
Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported
by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2
inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches
and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber,
structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are not
permitted except where permitted by the manufacturer’s
recommendations or where the effects of such alterations
are specifically considered in the design of the member
by a registered design professional.
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Framing around openings. Trimmer and header
joists shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent cross section,
where the span of the header exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm).
The ends of header joists more than 6 feet (1829 mm) long
shall be supported by framing anchors or joist hangers
unless bearing on a beam, partition or wall. Tail joists over
12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by
framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by
2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

Supporting bearing partitions. Bearing partitions
parallel to joists shall be supported on beams, girders,
doubled joists, walls or other bearing partitions. Bearing
partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from
supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist
depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the
additional load.

Lateral support. Floor, attic and roof framing
with a nominal depth-to-thickness ratio greater than or
equal to 5:1 shall have one edge held in line for the entire
span. Where the nominal depth-to-thickness ratio of the
framing member exceeds 6:1, there shall be one line of
bridging for each 8 feet (2438 mm) of span, unless both
edges of the member are held in line. The bridging shall
consist of not less than 1-inch by 3-inch (25mmby 76 mm)
lumber, double nailed at each end, of equivalent metal
bracing of equal rigidity, full-depth solid blocking or other
approved means. A line of bridging shall also be required
at supports where equivalent lateral support is not otherwise
provided.

Structural floor sheathing. Structural floor
sheathing shall comply with the provisions of Section
2304.7.1.

Under-floor ventilation. For under-floor ventilation,
see Section 1203.3.

International Building Code 2308.8.1

Bearing. Except where supported on a 1-inch by
4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the
adjoining stud, the ends of each joist shall not have less than
11/2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal, or less
than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry.

International Building Code 2308.8.2

Framing details. Joists shall be supported laterally
at the ends and at each support by solid blocking except
where the ends of the joists are nailed to a header, band or
rim joist or to an adjoining stud or by other means. Solid
blocking shall not be less than 2 inches (51mm) in thickness
and the full depth of the joist. Notches on the ends of joists
shall not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in
joists shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom
of the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not
exceed one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or
bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth the depth and
shall not be located in the middle third of the span.
Joist framing from opposite sides of a beam, girder or
partition shall be lapped at least 3 inches (76 mm) or the
opposing joists shall be tied together in an approved manner.
Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported
by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2
inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches
and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber,
structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are not
permitted except where permitted by the manufacturer’s
recommendations or where the effects of such alterations
are specifically considered in the design of the member
by a registered design professional.
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International Building Code 2308.8.2.1

Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches
and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber,
structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are not
permitted except where permitted by the manufacturer’s
recommendations or where the effects of such alterations
are specifically considered in the design of the member
by a registered design professional.
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International Building Code 2308.8.3

Framing around openings. Trimmer and header
joists shall be doubled, or of lumber of equivalent cross section,
where the span of the header exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm).
The ends of header joists more than 6 feet (1829 mm) long
shall be supported by framing anchors or joist hangers
unless bearing on a beam, partition or wall. Tail joists over
12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by
framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by
2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

International Building Code 2308.8.4

Supporting bearing partitions. Bearing partitions
parallel to joists shall be supported on beams, girders,
doubled joists, walls or other bearing partitions. Bearing
partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from
supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist
depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the
additional load.

International Building Code 2308.8.5

Lateral support. Floor, attic and roof framing
with a nominal depth-to-thickness ratio greater than or
equal to 5:1 shall have one edge held in line for the entire
span. Where the nominal depth-to-thickness ratio of the
framing member exceeds 6:1, there shall be one line of
bridging for each 8 feet (2438 mm) of span, unless both
edges of the member are held in line. The bridging shall
consist of not less than 1-inch by 3-inch (25mmby 76 mm)
lumber, double nailed at each end, of equivalent metal
bracing of equal rigidity, full-depth solid blocking or other
approved means. A line of bridging shall also be required
at supports where equivalent lateral support is not otherwise
provided.

International Building Code 2308.8.6

Structural floor sheathing. Structural floor
sheathing shall comply with the provisions of Section
2304.7.1.

International Building Code 2308.8.7

Under-floor ventilation. For under-floor ventilation,
see Section 1203.3.

International Building Code 2308.9

Wall framing.

Size, height and spacing. The size, height and
spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.1
except that utility-grade studs shall not be spaced more than
16 inches (406 mm) o.c., or support more than a roof and
ceiling, or exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior
walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior
nonload-bearing walls.

Framing details. Studs shall be placed with their
wide dimension perpendicular to thewall. Not less than three
studs shall be installed at each corner of an exterior wall.
Exception: At corners, two studs are permitted, provided
wood spacers or backup cleats of 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm)
wood structural panel, 3/8-inch (9.5mm)TypeM”Exterior
Glue” particleboard, 1-inch-thick (25 mm) lumber or
other approved devices that will serve as an adequate
backing for the attachment of facing materials are used.
Where fire-resistance ratings or shear values are involved,
wood spacers, backup cleats or other devices shall not be
used unless specifically approved for such use.

Top plates. Bearing and exterior wall studs
shall be capped with double top plates installed to provide
overlapping at corners and at intersections with
other partitions. End joints in double top plates shall be
offset at least 48 inches (1219 mm), and shall be nailed
with not less than eight 16d face nails on each side of the
joint. Plates shall be a nominal 2 inches (51 mm) in depth
and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
Exception: A single top plate is permitted, provided
the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting
walls by at least the equivalent of 3-inch by
6-inch (76 mm by 152 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick
(0.914 mm) galvanized steel that is nailed to eachwall
or segment of wall by six 8d nails or equivalent, provided
the rafters, joists or trusses are centered over the
studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm).

Top plates for studs spaced at 24 inches
(610 mm). Where bearing studs are spaced at 24-inch
(610 mm) intervals and top plates are less than two
2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) or two 3-inch by
4-inch (76mmby 102 mm) members and where the floor
joists, floor trusses or roof trusses that they support are
spaced at more than 16-inch (406 mm) intervals, such joists or trusses shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of
the studs beneath or a third plate shall be installed.

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Nonbearing walls and partitions. In
nonbearingwalls and partitions, studs shall be spaced not
more than 28 inches (711 mm) o.c. and are permitted to
be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall. Interior
nonbearing partitions shall be capped with no less
than a single top plate installed to provide overlapping at
corners and at intersections with other walls and partitions.
The plate shall be continuously tied at joints by
solid blocking at least 16 inches (406 mm) in length and
equal in size to the plate or by 1/2-inch by 11/2-inch (12.7
mm by 38 mm) metal ties with spliced sections fastened
with two 16d nails on each side of the joint.

Plates or sills. Studs shall have full bearing
on a plate or sill not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness
having a width not less than that of the wall studs.

Bracing. Braced wall lines shall consist of braced
wall panels that meet the requirements for location, type and
amount of bracing as shown in Figure 2308.9.3, specified in
Table 2308.9.3(1) and are in line or offset from each other
by not more than 4 feet (1219 mm). Bracedwall panels shall
start not more than 121/2-feet (3810 mm) from each end of a
braced wall line. Braced wall panels shall be clearly indicated
on the plans. Construction of braced wall panels shall
be by one of the following methods:
1. Nominal 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) continuous
diagonal braces let into top and bottom plates
and intervening studs, placed at an angle not more
than 60 degrees (1.0 rad) or less than 45 degrees (0.79
rad) from the horizontal and attached to the framing in
conformance with Table 2304.9.1.
2. Wood boards of 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) net minimum
thickness applied diagonally on studs spaced not over
24 inches (610 mm) o.c.
3. Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not
less than 5/16 inch (7.9 mm) for a 16-inch (406 mm)
stud spacing and not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) for a
24-inch (610 mm) stud spacing in accordance with
Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3).
4. Fiberboard sheathing panels not less than 1/2 inch
(12.7 mm) thick applied vertically or horizontally on
studs spaced not over 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. where
installed with fasteners in accordance with Section
2306.4.4 and Table 2306.4.4.
5. Gypsum board [sheathing 1/2-inch-thick (12.7 mm)
by 4-feet-wide (1219 mm) wallboard or veneer base]
on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. and
nailed at 7 inches (178 mm) o.c. with nails as required
by Table 2306.4.5.
6. Particleboard wall sheathing panels where installed in
accordance with Table 2308.9.3(4).
7. Portland cement plaster on studs spaced 16 inches
(406 mm) o.c. installed in accordance with Section
2510.
8. Hardboard panel siding where installed in accordance
with Section 2303.1.6 and Table 2308.9.3(5).
For cripple wall bracing, see Section 2308.9.4.1. For
Methods 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, each panel must be at least 48
inches (1219 mm) in length, covering three stud spaces
where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) apart and covering
two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610
mm) apart.
For Method 5, each panel must be at least 96 inches (2438
mm) in length where applied to one face of a panel and 48
inches (1219 mm) where applied to both faces.
All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over
studs and adjacent panel joints shall be nailed to common
framing members. Horizontal joints shall occur over blocking
or other framing equal in size to the studding except
where waived by the installation requirements for the specific
sheathing materials.
Sole plates shall be nailed to the floor framing and top
plates shall be connected to the framing above in accordance
with Section 2308.3.2. Where joists are perpendicular to
braced wall lines above, blocking shall be provided under
and in line with the braced wall panels.

Alternative bracing. Any bracing required
by Section 2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the
following:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a
length of not less than 2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) and
a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each
panel shall be sheathed on one face with
3/8-inch-minimum-thickness (9.5 mm) wood structural
panel sheathing nailedwith 8d common or galvanized
box nails in accordance with Table
2304.9.1 and blocked at wood structural panel
edges. Two anchor bolts installed in accordance
with Section 2308.6 shall be provided in each panel.
Anchor bolts shall be placed at each panel outside
quarter points. Each panel end stud shall have a
tie-down device fastened to the foundation, capable
of providing an approved uplift capacity of not less
than 1,800 pounds (8006 N). The tie-down device
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. The panels shall be supported
directly on a foundation or on floor framing
supported directly on a foundation that is continuous
across the entire length of the braced wall line.
This foundation shall be reinforced with not less
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.
Where the continuous foundation is required to
have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a
minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305
mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge
is permitted at door openings in the braced wall
line. This continuous footing or turned down slab
edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No.
4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be
lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement
required in the continuous foundation located
directly under the braced wall line.
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2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall
panel shall be braced in accordance with Section
2308.9.3.1, Item 1, except that the wood structural
panel sheathing shall be provided on both faces,
three anchor bolts shall be placed at one-quarter
points, and tie-down device uplift capacity shall
not be less than 3,000 pounds (13 344 N).

Alternate bracing wall panel adjacent to a
door or window opening. Any bracing required by Section
2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the following
when used adjacent to a door or window opening with a
full-length header:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a
length of not less than 16 inches (406 mm) and a
height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each
panel shall be sheathed on one face with a single
layer of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum thickness
wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d
common or galvanized box nails in accordance
with Figure 2308.9.3.2. The wood structural panel
sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or
glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in
accordance with Figure 2308.9.3.2. A built-up
header consisting of at least two 2 x 12s and fastened
in accordance with Item 24 of Table
2304.9.1 shall be permitted to be used. A spacer, if
used, shall be placed on the side of the built-up
beam opposite the wood structural panel sheathing.
The header shall extend between the inside
faces of the first full-length outer studs of each
panel. The clear span of the header between the
inner studs of each panel shall be not less than 6
feet (1829 mm) and not more than 18 feet (5486
mm) in length. A strap with an uplift capacity of
not less than 1,000 pounds (4,400 N) shall fasten
the header to the inner studs opposite the sheathing.
One anchor bolt not less than 5/8 inch (15.9
mm) diameter and installed in accordance with
Section 2308.6 shall be provided in the center of
each sill plate. The studs at each end of the panel
shall have a tie-down device fastened to the foundation
with an uplift capacity of not less than 4,200
pounds (18 480 N).
Where a panel is located on one side of the opening,
the header shall extend between the inside
face of the first full-length stud of the panel and the
bearing studs at the other end of the opening. A
strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000
pounds (4400 N) shall fasten the header to the
bearing studs. The bearing studs shall also have a
tie-down device fastened to the foundation with an
uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4400
N).
The tie-down devices shall be an embedded
strap type, installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. The panels shall be
supported directly on a foundation that is continuous
across the entire length of the braced wall line.
This foundation shall be reinforced with not less
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.
Where the continuous foundation is required to
have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a
minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305
mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge
is permitted at door openings in the braced wall
line. This continuous footing or turned down slab
edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No.
4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be
lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the
reinforcement required in the continuous foundation
located directly under the braced wall line.
2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall
panel shall be braced in accordance with Item 1
above, except that each panel shall have a length of
not less than 24 inches (610 mm).

Cripple walls. Foundation cripple walls shall be
framed of studs not less in size than the studding above with
a minimum length of 14 inches (356 mm), or shall be framed
of solid blocking. Where exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in
height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size
required for an additional story.

Bracing. For the purposes of this section,
cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches
(356 mm) shall be considered a story and shall be braced
in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(1) for Seismic Design
Category A, B or C. See Section 2308.12.4 for Seismic
Design Category D or E.

Nailing of bracing. Spacing of edge nailing
for required wall bracing shall not exceed 6 inches (152
mm) o.c. along the foundation plate and the top plate of
the cripple wall. Nail size, nail spacing for field nailing
and more restrictive boundary nailing requirements shall
be as required elsewhere in the code for the specific bracing
material used.

Openings in exterior walls.

Headers. Headers shall be provided over
each opening in exterior-bearing walls. The spans in
Table 2308.9.5 are permitted to be used for one- and
two-family dwellings. Headers for other buildings shall
be designed in accordance with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or
2. Headers shall be of two pieces of nominal 2-inch (51
mm) framing lumber set on edge as permitted by Table
2308.9.5 and nailed together in accordance with Table
2304.9.1 or of solid lumber of equivalent size.

Header support.Wall studs shall support the
ends of the header in accordance with Table 2308.9.5.
Each end of a lintel or header shall have a length of bearing
of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) for the full width
of the lintel.

Openings in interior bearing partitions. Headers
shall be provided over each opening in interior bearing
partitions as required in Section 2308.9.5. The spans in
Table 2308.9.6 are permitted to be used. Wall studs shall
support the ends of the header in accordance with Table
2308.9.5 or 2308.9.6, as appropriate.
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SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY MAXIMUM WALL SPACING (feet) REQUIRED BRACING LENGTH, b
A, B and C 35′-0??Table 2308.9.3(1) and Section 2308.9.3
D and E 25′-0??Table 2308.12.4
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.9.3
BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE LATERAL BRACING SYSTEM
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For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound = 4.448 N.
FIGURE 2308.9.3.2
ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL ADJACENT TO A DOOR OR WINDOW OPENING

Openings in interior nonbearing partitions.
Openings in nonbearing partitions are permitted to be
framed with single studs and headers. Each end of a lintel or
header shall have a length of bearing of not less than 11/2
inches (38 mm) for the full width of the lintel.

Pipes in walls. Stud partitions containing plumbing,
heating or other pipes shall be so framed and the joists
underneath so spaced as to give proper clearance for the piping.
Where a partition containing such piping runs parallel
to the floor joists, the joists underneath such partitions shall
be doubled and spaced to permit the passage of such pipes
and shall be bridged. Where plumbing, heating or other
pipes are placed in or partly in a partition, necessitating the
cutting of the soles or plates, a metal tie not less than 0.058
inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized gage) and 11/2 inches (38
mm) wide shall be fastened to each plate across and to each
side of the opening with not less than six 16d nails.

Bridging. Unless covered by interior or exterior
wall coverings or sheathing meeting the minimum requirements
of this code, stud partitions orwalls with studs having
a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding 50 shall have
bridging not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness and of
the same width as the studs fitted snugly and nailed thereto
to provide adequate lateral support. Bridging shall be placed
in every stud cavity and at a frequency such that no stud so
braced shall have a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding
50 with the height of the stud measured between horizontal
framing and bridging or between bridging, whichever
is greater.

Cutting and notching. In exterior walls and
bearing partitions, any wood stud is permitted to be cut or
notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width.
Cutting or notching of studs to a depth not greater than 40
percent of the width of the stud is permitted in nonbearing
partitions supporting no loads other than the weight of the
partition.

Bored holes. A hole not greater in diameter than
40 percent of the stud width is permitted to be bored in any
wood stud. Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the
width of the stud are permitted in nonbearing partitions or in
any wall where each bored stud is doubled, provided not
more than two such successive doubled studs are so bored.
In no case shall the edge of the bored hole be nearer than
5/8 inch (15.9 mm) to the edge of the stud.
Bored holes shall not be located at the same section of
stud as a cut or notch.

International Building Code 2308.9.1

Size, height and spacing. The size, height and
spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 2308.9.1
except that utility-grade studs shall not be spaced more than
16 inches (406 mm) o.c., or support more than a roof and
ceiling, or exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior
walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior
nonload-bearing walls.

International Building Code 2308.9.10

Cutting and notching. In exterior walls and
bearing partitions, any wood stud is permitted to be cut or
notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width.
Cutting or notching of studs to a depth not greater than 40
percent of the width of the stud is permitted in nonbearing
partitions supporting no loads other than the weight of the
partition.

International Building Code 2308.9.11

Bored holes. A hole not greater in diameter than
40 percent of the stud width is permitted to be bored in any
wood stud. Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the
width of the stud are permitted in nonbearing partitions or in
any wall where each bored stud is doubled, provided not
more than two such successive doubled studs are so bored.
In no case shall the edge of the bored hole be nearer than
5/8 inch (15.9 mm) to the edge of the stud.
Bored holes shall not be located at the same section of
stud as a cut or notch.

International Building Code 2308.9.2

Framing details. Studs shall be placed with their
wide dimension perpendicular to thewall. Not less than three
studs shall be installed at each corner of an exterior wall.
Exception: At corners, two studs are permitted, provided
wood spacers or backup cleats of 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm)
wood structural panel, 3/8-inch (9.5mm)TypeM”Exterior
Glue” particleboard, 1-inch-thick (25 mm) lumber or
other approved devices that will serve as an adequate
backing for the attachment of facing materials are used.
Where fire-resistance ratings or shear values are involved,
wood spacers, backup cleats or other devices shall not be
used unless specifically approved for such use.

Top plates. Bearing and exterior wall studs
shall be capped with double top plates installed to provide
overlapping at corners and at intersections with
other partitions. End joints in double top plates shall be
offset at least 48 inches (1219 mm), and shall be nailed
with not less than eight 16d face nails on each side of the
joint. Plates shall be a nominal 2 inches (51 mm) in depth
and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
Exception: A single top plate is permitted, provided
the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting
walls by at least the equivalent of 3-inch by
6-inch (76 mm by 152 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick
(0.914 mm) galvanized steel that is nailed to eachwall
or segment of wall by six 8d nails or equivalent, provided
the rafters, joists or trusses are centered over the
studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm).

Top plates for studs spaced at 24 inches
(610 mm). Where bearing studs are spaced at 24-inch
(610 mm) intervals and top plates are less than two
2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) or two 3-inch by
4-inch (76mmby 102 mm) members and where the floor
joists, floor trusses or roof trusses that they support are
spaced at more than 16-inch (406 mm) intervals, such joists or trusses shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of
the studs beneath or a third plate shall be installed.

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Nonbearing walls and partitions. In
nonbearingwalls and partitions, studs shall be spaced not
more than 28 inches (711 mm) o.c. and are permitted to
be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall. Interior
nonbearing partitions shall be capped with no less
than a single top plate installed to provide overlapping at
corners and at intersections with other walls and partitions.
The plate shall be continuously tied at joints by
solid blocking at least 16 inches (406 mm) in length and
equal in size to the plate or by 1/2-inch by 11/2-inch (12.7
mm by 38 mm) metal ties with spliced sections fastened
with two 16d nails on each side of the joint.

Plates or sills. Studs shall have full bearing
on a plate or sill not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness
having a width not less than that of the wall studs.

International Building Code 2308.9.2.1

Top plates. Bearing and exterior wall studs
shall be capped with double top plates installed to provide
overlapping at corners and at intersections with
other partitions. End joints in double top plates shall be
offset at least 48 inches (1219 mm), and shall be nailed
with not less than eight 16d face nails on each side of the
joint. Plates shall be a nominal 2 inches (51 mm) in depth
and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.
Exception: A single top plate is permitted, provided
the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting
walls by at least the equivalent of 3-inch by
6-inch (76 mm by 152 mm) by 0.036-inch-thick
(0.914 mm) galvanized steel that is nailed to eachwall
or segment of wall by six 8d nails or equivalent, provided
the rafters, joists or trusses are centered over the
studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm).

International Building Code 2308.9.2.2

Top plates for studs spaced at 24 inches
(610 mm). Where bearing studs are spaced at 24-inch
(610 mm) intervals and top plates are less than two
2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) or two 3-inch by
4-inch (76mmby 102 mm) members and where the floor
joists, floor trusses or roof trusses that they support are
spaced at more than 16-inch (406 mm) intervals, such joists or trusses shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of
the studs beneath or a third plate shall be installed.

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International Building Code 2308.9.2.3

Nonbearing walls and partitions. In
nonbearingwalls and partitions, studs shall be spaced not
more than 28 inches (711 mm) o.c. and are permitted to
be set with the long dimension parallel to the wall. Interior
nonbearing partitions shall be capped with no less
than a single top plate installed to provide overlapping at
corners and at intersections with other walls and partitions.
The plate shall be continuously tied at joints by
solid blocking at least 16 inches (406 mm) in length and
equal in size to the plate or by 1/2-inch by 11/2-inch (12.7
mm by 38 mm) metal ties with spliced sections fastened
with two 16d nails on each side of the joint.

International Building Code 2308.9.2.4

Plates or sills. Studs shall have full bearing
on a plate or sill not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness
having a width not less than that of the wall studs.

International Building Code 2308.9.3

Bracing. Braced wall lines shall consist of braced
wall panels that meet the requirements for location, type and
amount of bracing as shown in Figure 2308.9.3, specified in
Table 2308.9.3(1) and are in line or offset from each other
by not more than 4 feet (1219 mm). Bracedwall panels shall
start not more than 121/2-feet (3810 mm) from each end of a
braced wall line. Braced wall panels shall be clearly indicated
on the plans. Construction of braced wall panels shall
be by one of the following methods:
1. Nominal 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) continuous
diagonal braces let into top and bottom plates
and intervening studs, placed at an angle not more
than 60 degrees (1.0 rad) or less than 45 degrees (0.79
rad) from the horizontal and attached to the framing in
conformance with Table 2304.9.1.
2. Wood boards of 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) net minimum
thickness applied diagonally on studs spaced not over
24 inches (610 mm) o.c.
3. Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not
less than 5/16 inch (7.9 mm) for a 16-inch (406 mm)
stud spacing and not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) for a
24-inch (610 mm) stud spacing in accordance with
Tables 2308.9.3(2) and 2308.9.3(3).
4. Fiberboard sheathing panels not less than 1/2 inch
(12.7 mm) thick applied vertically or horizontally on
studs spaced not over 16 inches (406 mm) o.c. where
installed with fasteners in accordance with Section
2306.4.4 and Table 2306.4.4.
5. Gypsum board [sheathing 1/2-inch-thick (12.7 mm)
by 4-feet-wide (1219 mm) wallboard or veneer base]
on studs spaced not over 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. and
nailed at 7 inches (178 mm) o.c. with nails as required
by Table 2306.4.5.
6. Particleboard wall sheathing panels where installed in
accordance with Table 2308.9.3(4).
7. Portland cement plaster on studs spaced 16 inches
(406 mm) o.c. installed in accordance with Section
2510.
8. Hardboard panel siding where installed in accordance
with Section 2303.1.6 and Table 2308.9.3(5).
For cripple wall bracing, see Section 2308.9.4.1. For
Methods 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, each panel must be at least 48
inches (1219 mm) in length, covering three stud spaces
where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) apart and covering
two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610
mm) apart.
For Method 5, each panel must be at least 96 inches (2438
mm) in length where applied to one face of a panel and 48
inches (1219 mm) where applied to both faces.
All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over
studs and adjacent panel joints shall be nailed to common
framing members. Horizontal joints shall occur over blocking
or other framing equal in size to the studding except
where waived by the installation requirements for the specific
sheathing materials.
Sole plates shall be nailed to the floor framing and top
plates shall be connected to the framing above in accordance
with Section 2308.3.2. Where joists are perpendicular to
braced wall lines above, blocking shall be provided under
and in line with the braced wall panels.

Alternative bracing. Any bracing required
by Section 2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the
following:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a
length of not less than 2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) and
a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each
panel shall be sheathed on one face with
3/8-inch-minimum-thickness (9.5 mm) wood structural
panel sheathing nailedwith 8d common or galvanized
box nails in accordance with Table
2304.9.1 and blocked at wood structural panel
edges. Two anchor bolts installed in accordance
with Section 2308.6 shall be provided in each panel.
Anchor bolts shall be placed at each panel outside
quarter points. Each panel end stud shall have a
tie-down device fastened to the foundation, capable
of providing an approved uplift capacity of not less
than 1,800 pounds (8006 N). The tie-down device
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. The panels shall be supported
directly on a foundation or on floor framing
supported directly on a foundation that is continuous
across the entire length of the braced wall line.
This foundation shall be reinforced with not less
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.
Where the continuous foundation is required to
have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a
minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305
mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge
is permitted at door openings in the braced wall
line. This continuous footing or turned down slab
edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No.
4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be
lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement
required in the continuous foundation located
directly under the braced wall line.
460 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall
panel shall be braced in accordance with Section
2308.9.3.1, Item 1, except that the wood structural
panel sheathing shall be provided on both faces,
three anchor bolts shall be placed at one-quarter
points, and tie-down device uplift capacity shall
not be less than 3,000 pounds (13 344 N).

Alternate bracing wall panel adjacent to a
door or window opening. Any bracing required by Section
2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the following
when used adjacent to a door or window opening with a
full-length header:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a
length of not less than 16 inches (406 mm) and a
height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each
panel shall be sheathed on one face with a single
layer of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum thickness
wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d
common or galvanized box nails in accordance
with Figure 2308.9.3.2. The wood structural panel
sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or
glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in
accordance with Figure 2308.9.3.2. A built-up
header consisting of at least two 2 x 12s and fastened
in accordance with Item 24 of Table
2304.9.1 shall be permitted to be used. A spacer, if
used, shall be placed on the side of the built-up
beam opposite the wood structural panel sheathing.
The header shall extend between the inside
faces of the first full-length outer studs of each
panel. The clear span of the header between the
inner studs of each panel shall be not less than 6
feet (1829 mm) and not more than 18 feet (5486
mm) in length. A strap with an uplift capacity of
not less than 1,000 pounds (4,400 N) shall fasten
the header to the inner studs opposite the sheathing.
One anchor bolt not less than 5/8 inch (15.9
mm) diameter and installed in accordance with
Section 2308.6 shall be provided in the center of
each sill plate. The studs at each end of the panel
shall have a tie-down device fastened to the foundation
with an uplift capacity of not less than 4,200
pounds (18 480 N).
Where a panel is located on one side of the opening,
the header shall extend between the inside
face of the first full-length stud of the panel and the
bearing studs at the other end of the opening. A
strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000
pounds (4400 N) shall fasten the header to the
bearing studs. The bearing studs shall also have a
tie-down device fastened to the foundation with an
uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4400
N).
The tie-down devices shall be an embedded
strap type, installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. The panels shall be
supported directly on a foundation that is continuous
across the entire length of the braced wall line.
This foundation shall be reinforced with not less
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.
Where the continuous foundation is required to
have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a
minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305
mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge
is permitted at door openings in the braced wall
line. This continuous footing or turned down slab
edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No.
4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be
lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the
reinforcement required in the continuous foundation
located directly under the braced wall line.
2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall
panel shall be braced in accordance with Item 1
above, except that each panel shall have a length of
not less than 24 inches (610 mm).

International Building Code 2308.9.3.1

Alternative bracing. Any bracing required
by Section 2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the
following:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a
length of not less than 2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) and
a height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each
panel shall be sheathed on one face with
3/8-inch-minimum-thickness (9.5 mm) wood structural
panel sheathing nailedwith 8d common or galvanized
box nails in accordance with Table
2304.9.1 and blocked at wood structural panel
edges. Two anchor bolts installed in accordance
with Section 2308.6 shall be provided in each panel.
Anchor bolts shall be placed at each panel outside
quarter points. Each panel end stud shall have a
tie-down device fastened to the foundation, capable
of providing an approved uplift capacity of not less
than 1,800 pounds (8006 N). The tie-down device
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. The panels shall be supported
directly on a foundation or on floor framing
supported directly on a foundation that is continuous
across the entire length of the braced wall line.
This foundation shall be reinforced with not less
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.
Where the continuous foundation is required to
have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a
minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305
mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge
is permitted at door openings in the braced wall
line. This continuous footing or turned down slab
edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No.
4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be
lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement
required in the continuous foundation located
directly under the braced wall line.
460 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall
panel shall be braced in accordance with Section
2308.9.3.1, Item 1, except that the wood structural
panel sheathing shall be provided on both faces,
three anchor bolts shall be placed at one-quarter
points, and tie-down device uplift capacity shall
not be less than 3,000 pounds (13 344 N).

International Building Code 2308.9.3.2

Alternate bracing wall panel adjacent to a
door or window opening. Any bracing required by Section
2308.9.3 is permitted to be replaced by the following
when used adjacent to a door or window opening with a
full-length header:
1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a
length of not less than 16 inches (406 mm) and a
height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each
panel shall be sheathed on one face with a single
layer of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) minimum thickness
wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d
common or galvanized box nails in accordance
with Figure 2308.9.3.2. The wood structural panel
sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or
glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in
accordance with Figure 2308.9.3.2. A built-up
header consisting of at least two 2 x 12s and fastened
in accordance with Item 24 of Table
2304.9.1 shall be permitted to be used. A spacer, if
used, shall be placed on the side of the built-up
beam opposite the wood structural panel sheathing.
The header shall extend between the inside
faces of the first full-length outer studs of each
panel. The clear span of the header between the
inner studs of each panel shall be not less than 6
feet (1829 mm) and not more than 18 feet (5486
mm) in length. A strap with an uplift capacity of
not less than 1,000 pounds (4,400 N) shall fasten
the header to the inner studs opposite the sheathing.
One anchor bolt not less than 5/8 inch (15.9
mm) diameter and installed in accordance with
Section 2308.6 shall be provided in the center of
each sill plate. The studs at each end of the panel
shall have a tie-down device fastened to the foundation
with an uplift capacity of not less than 4,200
pounds (18 480 N).
Where a panel is located on one side of the opening,
the header shall extend between the inside
face of the first full-length stud of the panel and the
bearing studs at the other end of the opening. A
strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000
pounds (4400 N) shall fasten the header to the
bearing studs. The bearing studs shall also have a
tie-down device fastened to the foundation with an
uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4400
N).
The tie-down devices shall be an embedded
strap type, installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations. The panels shall be
supported directly on a foundation that is continuous
across the entire length of the braced wall line.
This foundation shall be reinforced with not less
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom.
Where the continuous foundation is required to
have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a
minimum 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305
mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge
is permitted at door openings in the braced wall
line. This continuous footing or turned down slab
edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No.
4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be
lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the
reinforcement required in the continuous foundation
located directly under the braced wall line.
2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall
panel shall be braced in accordance with Item 1
above, except that each panel shall have a length of
not less than 24 inches (610 mm).

International Building Code 2308.9.4

Cripple walls. Foundation cripple walls shall be
framed of studs not less in size than the studding above with
a minimum length of 14 inches (356 mm), or shall be framed
of solid blocking. Where exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in
height, such walls shall be framed of studs having the size
required for an additional story.

Bracing. For the purposes of this section,
cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches
(356 mm) shall be considered a story and shall be braced
in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(1) for Seismic Design
Category A, B or C. See Section 2308.12.4 for Seismic
Design Category D or E.

Nailing of bracing. Spacing of edge nailing
for required wall bracing shall not exceed 6 inches (152
mm) o.c. along the foundation plate and the top plate of
the cripple wall. Nail size, nail spacing for field nailing
and more restrictive boundary nailing requirements shall
be as required elsewhere in the code for the specific bracing
material used.

International Building Code 2308.9.4.1

Bracing. For the purposes of this section,
cripple walls having a stud height exceeding 14 inches
(356 mm) shall be considered a story and shall be braced
in accordance with Table 2308.9.3(1) for Seismic Design
Category A, B or C. See Section 2308.12.4 for Seismic
Design Category D or E.

International Building Code 2308.9.4.2

Nailing of bracing. Spacing of edge nailing
for required wall bracing shall not exceed 6 inches (152
mm) o.c. along the foundation plate and the top plate of
the cripple wall. Nail size, nail spacing for field nailing
and more restrictive boundary nailing requirements shall
be as required elsewhere in the code for the specific bracing
material used.

International Building Code 2308.9.5

Openings in exterior walls.

Headers. Headers shall be provided over
each opening in exterior-bearing walls. The spans in
Table 2308.9.5 are permitted to be used for one- and
two-family dwellings. Headers for other buildings shall
be designed in accordance with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or
2. Headers shall be of two pieces of nominal 2-inch (51
mm) framing lumber set on edge as permitted by Table
2308.9.5 and nailed together in accordance with Table
2304.9.1 or of solid lumber of equivalent size.

Header support.Wall studs shall support the
ends of the header in accordance with Table 2308.9.5.
Each end of a lintel or header shall have a length of bearing
of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) for the full width
of the lintel.

International Building Code 2308.9.5.1

Headers. Headers shall be provided over
each opening in exterior-bearing walls. The spans in
Table 2308.9.5 are permitted to be used for one- and
two-family dwellings. Headers for other buildings shall
be designed in accordance with Section 2301.2, Item 1 or
2. Headers shall be of two pieces of nominal 2-inch (51
mm) framing lumber set on edge as permitted by Table
2308.9.5 and nailed together in accordance with Table
2304.9.1 or of solid lumber of equivalent size.

International Building Code 2308.9.5.2

Header support.Wall studs shall support the
ends of the header in accordance with Table 2308.9.5.
Each end of a lintel or header shall have a length of bearing
of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) for the full width
of the lintel.

International Building Code 2308.9.6

Openings in interior bearing partitions. Headers
shall be provided over each opening in interior bearing
partitions as required in Section 2308.9.5. The spans in
Table 2308.9.6 are permitted to be used. Wall studs shall
support the ends of the header in accordance with Table
2308.9.5 or 2308.9.6, as appropriate.
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462 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
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SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY MAXIMUM WALL SPACING (feet) REQUIRED BRACING LENGTH, b
A, B and C 35′-0??Table 2308.9.3(1) and Section 2308.9.3
D and E 25′-0??Table 2308.12.4
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
FIGURE 2308.9.3
BASIC COMPONENTS OF THE LATERAL BRACING SYSTEM
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 463
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For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound = 4.448 N.
FIGURE 2308.9.3.2
ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL ADJACENT TO A DOOR OR WINDOW OPENING

International Building Code 2308.9.7

Openings in interior nonbearing partitions.
Openings in nonbearing partitions are permitted to be
framed with single studs and headers. Each end of a lintel or
header shall have a length of bearing of not less than 11/2
inches (38 mm) for the full width of the lintel.

International Building Code 2308.9.8

Pipes in walls. Stud partitions containing plumbing,
heating or other pipes shall be so framed and the joists
underneath so spaced as to give proper clearance for the piping.
Where a partition containing such piping runs parallel
to the floor joists, the joists underneath such partitions shall
be doubled and spaced to permit the passage of such pipes
and shall be bridged. Where plumbing, heating or other
pipes are placed in or partly in a partition, necessitating the
cutting of the soles or plates, a metal tie not less than 0.058
inch (1.47 mm) (16 galvanized gage) and 11/2 inches (38
mm) wide shall be fastened to each plate across and to each
side of the opening with not less than six 16d nails.

International Building Code 2308.9.9

Bridging. Unless covered by interior or exterior
wall coverings or sheathing meeting the minimum requirements
of this code, stud partitions orwalls with studs having
a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding 50 shall have
bridging not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness and of
the same width as the studs fitted snugly and nailed thereto
to provide adequate lateral support. Bridging shall be placed
in every stud cavity and at a frequency such that no stud so
braced shall have a height-to-least-thickness ratio exceeding
50 with the height of the stud measured between horizontal
framing and bridging or between bridging, whichever
is greater.