International Building Code Section 402


International Building Code 402.10

Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or
permanent) shall meet the following requirements:
1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be
located within the mall unless constructed of any of the
following materials:
1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with
Section 2303.2.
1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release
rate not greater than 100kW (105 Btu/h) when
tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol
in UL 1975.
1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a
flame spread index of not more than 25 and a
smoke-developed index of not more than 450
when tested as an assembly in the maximum
thickness intended for use in accordance with
ASTM E 84.
2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall
be provided with approved fire suppression and detection
devices.
3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or
groupings thereof and other structures within the mall
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm).
4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall
have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m2).

International Building Code 402.1

Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to
buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings
not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three
stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by
this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions
of this code.
Exceptions:
1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not
required to comply with this section.
2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this
section when they totally comply with other applicable
provisions of this code.
[edit] International Building Code 402.11
Children’s playground structures. Structures
intended as children’s playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048
mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m2) in area shall comply
with the following.

Materials. Children’s playground structures shall
be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible
materials that comply with the following:
1. Fire-retardant-treated wood.
2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section
2606.
3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in
soft-contained play equipment structures) having a
maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kW
when tested in accordance with UL 1975.
4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the
requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance
with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the
maximum thickness intended for use.
5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propagation
performance criteria contained in NFPA 701.
6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components
of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as
tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides
and decks) meeting the UL 94 V-2 classification
when tested in accordance with UL 94.
7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment
structures, having a maximum heat release rate not
greater than 100 kW when tested in accordance with
UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be
36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an
average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls
shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel
poultry netting wire mesh.
8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or
film meeting the flame propagation performance criteria
of NFPA 701.
9. The floor covering placed under the children’s playground
structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor
finish classification, as described in Section 804,
when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.

Fire protection. Children’s playground structures
located within the mall shall be provided with the same level
of approved fire suppression and detection devices required
for kiosks and similar structures.

Separation. Children’s playground structures
shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other
structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm).

Area limits. Children’s playground structures
shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m2) in area, unless a
special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety.

International Building Code 402.11.1

Materials. Children’s playground structures shall
be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible
materials that comply with the following:
1. Fire-retardant-treated wood.
2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section
2606.
3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in
soft-contained play equipment structures) having a
maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kW
when tested in accordance with UL 1975.
4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the
requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance
with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the
maximum thickness intended for use.
5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propagation
performance criteria contained in NFPA 701.
6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components
of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as
tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides
and decks) meeting the UL 94 V-2 classification
when tested in accordance with UL 94.
7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment
structures, having a maximum heat release rate not
greater than 100 kW when tested in accordance with
UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be
36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an
average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls
shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel
poultry netting wire mesh.
8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or
film meeting the flame propagation performance criteria
of NFPA 701.
9. The floor covering placed under the children’s playground
structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor
finish classification, as described in Section 804,
when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.
[edit] International Building Code 402.11.2
Fire protection. Children’s playground structures
located within the mall shall be provided with the same level
of approved fire suppression and detection devices required
for kiosks and similar structures.

International Building Code 402.11.3

Separation. Children’s playground structures
shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other
structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm).
[edit] International Building Code 402.11.4
Area limits. Children’s playground structures
shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m2) in area, unless a
special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety.

International Building Code 402.12

Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or vertical
security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of
egress shall conform to the following:
1. They shall remain in the full open position during the
period of occupancy by the general public.
2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position
when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces
served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying
spaces served by more than one exit.
3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without
the use of any special knowledge or effort where the
space is occupied.
4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a
horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.

International Building Code 402.13

Standby power. Covered mall buildings exceeding
50,000 square feet (4645 m2) shall be provided with standby
power systems that are capable of operating the emergency
voice/alarm communication system.

International Building Code 402.14

Emergency voice/alarm communication system.
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645
m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency
voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm
communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise,
shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.

International Building Code 402.15

Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of
any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in
Sections 402.15.1 through 402.15.5.2.

Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of
the wall area facing the mall.

Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except if the sign is vertical,
the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).

Location. Plastic signs shall be located a minimumdistance
of 18 inches (457 mm)from adjacent tenants.

Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other
than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a
self-ignition temperature of 650F (343C) or greater when
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed
index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the
acceptance criteria of Section 803.2.1 when tested in accordance
with NFPA 286.

Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.

Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section
402.14 shall not be required to comply with the flame
spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section
2603.3.

Density. The minimum density of foam plastics
used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).

Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic
signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

International Building Code 402.15.1

Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of
the wall area facing the mall.

International Building Code 402.15.2

Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except if the sign is vertical,
the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).

International Building Code 402.15.3

Location. Plastic signs shall be located a minimumdistance
of 18 inches (457 mm)from adjacent tenants.

International Building Code 402.15.4

Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other
than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a
self-ignition temperature of 650F (343C) or greater when
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed
index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the
acceptance criteria of Section 803.2.1 when tested in accordance
with NFPA 286.

Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.
[edit] International Building Code 402.15.4.1
Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.

International Building Code 402.15.5

Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section
402.14 shall not be required to comply with the flame
spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section
2603.3.

Density. The minimum density of foam plastics
used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).

Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic
signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

International Building Code 402.15.5.1

Density. The minimum density of foam plastics
used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).

International Building Code 402.15.5.2

Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic
signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

International Building Code 402.15.6

Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic
fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression
or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire
department.

International Building Code 402.2

Definitions. The followingwords and terms shall, for the
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code,
have the meanings shown herein.
ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a
group other thanHhaving direct access to a covered mall building
but having required means of egress independent of the
mall.
COVEREDMALLBUILDING. Asingle building enclosing
a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking
and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement
facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other
similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance
into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor
buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall
building.
FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that
serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces.
GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant
occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions
to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including
areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross
leasable area.
MALL. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a
covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants
and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other.

International Building Code 402.3

Lease plan. Each covered mall building owner shall provide
both the building and fire departments with a lease plan
showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the
certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on
the lease plan without prior approval of the building official.

International Building Code 402.4.1

Determination of occupant load. The occupant
load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered
mall building shall be determined as required by this code.
Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces
shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.

Occupant formula. In determining required
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building
(excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor
as determined by the following equation.
(Equation 4-1)
where:
OLF= The occupant load factor (square feet per person).
GLA= The gross leasable area (square feet).

OLFrange. The occupant load factor (OLF) is
not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.

Anchor buildings. The occupant load of
anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be
included in computing the total number of occupants for
the mall.

Food courts. The occupant load of a food
court shall be determined in accordance with Section
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered
mall building as calculated above.

Number of means of egress. Wherever the distance
of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant
space used by persons other than employees exceeds
75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant
load of 50 or more, not less than twomeans of egress shall
be provided.

Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly
occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be
so located in the covered mall building that their entrance
will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the
mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required
means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered
mall building.

Anchor building means of egress. Required
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided
independently from the mall means of egress system.
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating
at an anchor building where no other means of
egress has been provided shall be considered as a
dead-end mall.

Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant
space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The maximum distance of travel from any point within a
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

Access to exits. Where more than one exit is
required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel
in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits.
The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm).
Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest
location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

Exit passageways. Where exit passageways
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space,
doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by
1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic
closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section
715.4.7.3.

Service areas fronting on exit passageways.
Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas
and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit
passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated
from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-
rated fire barriers and 1-hour opening protectives.

International Building Code 402.4.1.1

Occupant formula. In determining required
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building
(excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor
as determined by the following equation.
(Equation 4-1)
where:
OLF= The occupant load factor (square feet per person).
GLA= The gross leasable area (square feet).
[edit] International Building Code 402.4.1.2
OLFrange. The occupant load factor (OLF) is
not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.

International Building Code 402.4.1.3

Anchor buildings. The occupant load of
anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be
included in computing the total number of occupants for
the mall.

Food courts. The occupant load of a food
court shall be determined in accordance with Section
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered
mall building as calculated above.

International Building Code 402.4.1.4

Food courts. The occupant load of a food
court shall be determined in accordance with Section
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered
mall building as calculated above.

International Building Code 402.4.2

Number of means of egress. Wherever the distance
of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant
space used by persons other than employees exceeds
75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant
load of 50 or more, not less than twomeans of egress shall
be provided.

International Building Code 402.4.3

Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly
occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be
so located in the covered mall building that their entrance
will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the
mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required
means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered
mall building.

Anchor building means of egress. Required
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided
independently from the mall means of egress system.
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating
at an anchor building where no other means of
egress has been provided shall be considered as a
dead-end mall.

International Building Code 402.4.3.1

Anchor building means of egress. Required
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided
independently from the mall means of egress system.
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating
at an anchor building where no other means of
egress has been provided shall be considered as a
dead-end mall.

International Building Code 402.4.4

Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant
space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
The maximum distance of travel from any point within a
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

International Building Code 402.4.5

Access to exits. Where more than one exit is
required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel
in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits.
The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm).
Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest
location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

Exit passageways. Where exit passageways
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space,
doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by
1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic
closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section
715.4.7.3.

International Building Code 402.4.5.1

Exit passageways. Where exit passageways
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space,
doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by
1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic
closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section
715.4.7.3.

International Building Code 402.4.6

Service areas fronting on exit passageways.
Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas
and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit
passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated
from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-
rated fire barriers and 1-hour opening protectives.

International Building Code 402.5

Mallwidth. For the purpose of providing required egress,
malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not
comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code
where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.

Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient
to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a
height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant
space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other
obstruction to means of egress travel.

International Building Code 402.5.1

Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient
to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a
height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant
space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other
obstruction to means of egress travel.

International Building Code 402.6

Types of construction. The area of any covered mall
building, including anchor buildings, of Type I, II, III and IV
construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall
building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are
surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not
exceed three stories in height. The allowable height and area of
anchor buildings greater than three stores in height shall comply
with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The
construction type of open parking garages and enclosed parking
garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4,
respectively.

International Building Code 402.7

Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resistance-
rated separation is not required between tenant spaces
and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required
between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.

Attached garage. An attached garage for the storage
of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than
nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered
as a separate building where it is separated from the covered
mall building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating
of at least 2 hours.
Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed
parking garage is separated from the covered mall building
or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply.
Pedestrian walkways and tunnels which attach the open
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered
mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in
accordance with Section 3104.

Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying
with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not
required between any tenant space and the mall.

3 Anchor building separation. An anchor building
shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire
walls complying with Section 705.
Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three stories
above grade plane that have an occupancy classification
the same as that permitted for tenants of the covered
mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistive
fire barriers complying with Section 706.

1 Openings between anchor building and
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor
buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA and IIB construction and
the mall need not be protected.

International Building Code 402.7.1

Attached garage. An attached garage for the storage
of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than
nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered
as a separate building where it is separated from the covered
mall building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating
of at least 2 hours.
Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed
parking garage is separated from the covered mall building
or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply.
Pedestrian walkways and tunnels which attach the open
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered
mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in
accordance with Section 3104.

International Building Code 402.7.2

Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying
with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not
required between any tenant space and the mall.

International Building Code 402.7.3

Anchor building separation. An anchor building
shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire
walls complying with Section 705.
Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three stories
above grade plane that have an occupancy classification
the same as that permitted for tenants of the covered
mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistive
fire barriers complying with Section 706.

1 Openings between anchor building and
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor
buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA and IIB construction and
the mall need not be protected.

International Building Code 402.7.3.1

Openings between anchor building and
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor
buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA and IIB construction and
the mall need not be protected.
[edit] International Building Code 402.8
Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall
building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section
903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following:
1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and
operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces.
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected
unless provided with approved alternate protection.
2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where
tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall
be independently controlled.
Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages constructed
in accordance with Section 406.2.

Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required
by Section 905.3.3.

International Building Code 402.8.1

Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required
by Section 905.3.3.

International Building Code 402.9

Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be provided
where required for atriums in Section 404.