International Building Code Section 909

International Building Code 909.10

Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited
to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall
be suitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable exposure
temperatures that the rational analysis indicates and as
approved by the fire code official.

Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans
shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable
temperature rise to which the components will be
exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
(Equation 9-9)
where:
c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature,
Btu/lbF (kJ/kg #?K).
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta = Ambient temperature, F (K).
Ts = Smoke temperature, F (K).
Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance
of adequate dilution air.

Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable
of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures
to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with
Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices.
Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow.
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis-
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?
tance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial,
noncombustible supports.
Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of
vibration isolation) complying with the International
Mechanical Code, that are constructed of approved
fire-resistance-rated materials.

Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment
shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of
the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets
shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing
smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall
be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into
the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent
buildings to an additional fire hazard.

Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers,
regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within
the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the
requirements of approved, recognized standards.

Fans. In addition to other requirements,
belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts
required for the design duty, with the minimum number of
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance
based on normal temperature and, where applicable,
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible
devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16.
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from
measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum
service factor of 1.15.

International Building Code 909.1

Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical
or passive smoke control systems when they are required
by other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is
to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation
and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are
intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or
relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for
the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations
or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities.
Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different
purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found
in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be
considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International
Mechanical Code.

International Building Code 909.10.1

Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans
shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable
temperature rise to which the components will be
exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:
(Equation 9-9)
where:
c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature,
Btu/lbF (kJ/kg #?K).
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
Qc = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
Ta = Ambient temperature, F (K).
Ts = Smoke temperature, F (K).
Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance
of adequate dilution air.

International Building Code 909.10.2

Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable
of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures
to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with
Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices.
Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow.
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis-
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?
tance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial,
noncombustible supports.
Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of
vibration isolation) complying with the International
Mechanical Code, that are constructed of approved
fire-resistance-rated materials.

International Building Code 909.10.3

Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment
shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of
the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets
shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing
smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall
be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into
the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent
buildings to an additional fire hazard.

International Building Code 909.10.4

Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers,
regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within
the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the
requirements of approved, recognized standards.

International Building Code 909.10.5

Fans. In addition to other requirements,
belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts
required for the design duty, with the minimum number of
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance
based on normal temperature and, where applicable,
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible
devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16.
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from
measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a minimum
service factor of 1.15.

International Building Code 909.11

Power systems. The smoke control system shall be
supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be
from the normal building power system. Secondary power
shall be from an approved standby source complying with the
ICC Electrical Code. The standby power source and its transfer
switches shall be in a separate room from the normal power
transformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a room
constructed of not less than 1-hour fire barriers ventilated
directly to and from the exterior. Power distribution from the
two sources shall be by independent routes. Transfer to full
standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of failure
of the primary power. The systems shall comply with this
code or the ICC Electrical Code.

Power sources and power surges. Elements
of the smoke management system relying on volatile memories
or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable
power sources of sufficient duration to span a 15-minute primary
power interruption. Elements of the smoke management
system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably
protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved
means.

International Building Code 909.11.1

Power sources and power surges. Elements
of the smoke management system relying on volatile memories
or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable
power sources of sufficient duration to span a 15-minute primary
power interruption. Elements of the smoke management
system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably
protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved
means.

International Building Code 909.12

Detection and control systems. Fire detection systems
providing control input or output signals to mechanical
smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with
the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be
equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed
as smoke control equipment.
Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall
include provisions for verification. Verification shall include
positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override,
the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and,
through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal
conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.

Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements
of the ICC Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage,
shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.

Activation. Smoke control systems shall be
activated in accordance with this section.

Pressurization, airflow or exhaust
method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the
pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have
completely automatic control.

Passive method. Passive smoke control
systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed
for releasing service shall be permitted.

Automatic control. Where completely automatic
control is required or used, the automatic-control
sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned
automatic sprinkler system complying with Section
903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the
fire department and any smoke detectors required by engineering
analysis.

International Building Code 909.12.1

Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements
of the ICC Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage,
shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.

International Building Code 909.12.2

Activation. Smoke control systems shall be
activated in accordance with this section.

Pressurization, airflow or exhaust
method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the
pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have
completely automatic control.

Passive method. Passive smoke control
systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed
for releasing service shall be permitted.

International Building Code 909.12.2.1

Pressurization, airflow or exhaust
method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the
pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have
completely automatic control.

International Building Code 909.12.2.2

Passive method. Passive smoke control
systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed
for releasing service shall be permitted.

International Building Code 909.12.3

Automatic control. Where completely automatic
control is required or used, the automatic-control
sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned
automatic sprinkler system complying with Section
903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the
fire department and any smoke detectors required by engineering
analysis.

International Building Code 909.13

Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of
sufficient size to meet the required response times.Tubing shall
be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be
adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected
from abrasion and electrolytic action.

Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard
drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B
42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251
andASTMB280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass,
solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate
tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed
using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100F
(593C) and liquids below 1,500F (816C). Brazing flux
shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels
and at the final connection to devices, provided that
all of the following conditions are met:
1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for
flame and smoke characteristics.
2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely
enclosed within galvanized or paint-grade steel
enclosure of not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm)
(No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) thickness. Entry to
the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective
grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable
brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
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3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented
coding.
4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving
devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.

Isolation from other functions. Control tubing
serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated
by automatic isolation valves or shall be an
independent system.

Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at
three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes
without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to
final connection to devices.

International Building Code 909.13.1

Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard
drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B
42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251
andASTMB280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass,
solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate
tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed
using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100F
(593C) and liquids below 1,500F (816C). Brazing flux
shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.
Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels
and at the final connection to devices, provided that
all of the following conditions are met:
1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for
flame and smoke characteristics.
2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely
enclosed within galvanized or paint-grade steel
enclosure of not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm)
(No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) thickness. Entry to
the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective
grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable
brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
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3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented
coding.
4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving
devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.

International Building Code 909.13.2

Isolation from other functions. Control tubing
serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated
by automatic isolation valves or shall be an
independent system.

International Building Code 909.13.3

Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at
three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes
without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to
final connection to devices.

International Building Code 909.14

Marking and identification. The detection and
control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions,
accesses and terminations.

International Building Code 909.15

Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams
showing all devices in the system and identifying their location
and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with
the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command
center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.

International Building Code 909.16

Fire-fighter’s smoke control panel. A
fire-fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department emergency
response purposes only shall be provided and shall
include manual control or override of automatic control for
mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located
in a fire command center complying with Section 911 in highrise
buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly
seating. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter’s smoke control
panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the
fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter’s smoke control panel
shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.

Smoke control systems. Fans within the
building shall be shown on the fire-fighter’s control panel.A
clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship
of components shall be displayed. Status indicators
shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated
by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as
follows:
1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their
normal status-WHITE.
2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their
off or closed status-RED.
3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their
on or open status-GREEN.
4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a
fault status-YELLOW/AMBER.

Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter’s control
panel shall provide control capability over the complete
smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:
1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece
of operating smoke control equipment that can also be
controlled from other sources within the building.
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke
exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator
shaft fans and other operating equipment used or
intended for smoke control purposes.
2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual
dampers relating to smoke control and that are also
controlled from other sources within the building.
3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control
and other critical equipment associated with a fire
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled
from the fire-fighter’s control panel.
Exceptions:
1. Complex systems, where approved, where the
controls and indicators are combined to control
and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as
a unit.
2. Complex systems, where approved, where the
control is accomplished by computer interface
using approved, plain English commands.

Control action and priorities. The firefighter’s
control panel actions shall be as follows:
1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall
have the highest priority of any control point within
the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter’s control
panel, no automatic or manual control from any
other control point within the building shall contradict
the control action. Where automatic means are
provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment
operation or produce a specific result to safeguard
the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats,
duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-
actuated linkage and similar devices), such
means shall be capable of being overridden by the
fire-fighter’s control panel. The last control action as
indicated by each fire-fighter’s control panel switch
position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions
require the smoke control system to assume more
than one configuration at any one time.
Exception: Power disconnects required by the
ICC Electrical Code.
2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position
fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic
or manual control action from other control
points within the building. The AUTO position shall
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control
position. Where a fire-fighter’s control panel is in the
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on,
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the
status indicator described above. When directed by an
automatic signal to assume an emergency condition,
the NORMAL position shall become the emergency
condition for that device or group of devices within
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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
the zone. In no case shall control actions require the
smoke control system to assume more than one configuration
at any one time.

International Building Code 909.16.1

Smoke control systems. Fans within the
building shall be shown on the fire-fighter’s control panel.A
clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship
of components shall be displayed. Status indicators
shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated
by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as
follows:
1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their
normal status-WHITE.
2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their
off or closed status-RED.
3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their
on or open status-GREEN.
4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a
fault status-YELLOW/AMBER.

International Building Code 909.16.2

Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter’s control
panel shall provide control capability over the complete
smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:
1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece
of operating smoke control equipment that can also be
controlled from other sources within the building.
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke
exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator
shaft fans and other operating equipment used or
intended for smoke control purposes.
2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual
dampers relating to smoke control and that are also
controlled from other sources within the building.
3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control
and other critical equipment associated with a fire
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled
from the fire-fighter’s control panel.
Exceptions:
1. Complex systems, where approved, where the
controls and indicators are combined to control
and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as
a unit.
2. Complex systems, where approved, where the
control is accomplished by computer interface
using approved, plain English commands.

International Building Code 909.16.3

Control action and priorities. The firefighter’s
control panel actions shall be as follows:
1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall
have the highest priority of any control point within
the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter’s control
panel, no automatic or manual control from any
other control point within the building shall contradict
the control action. Where automatic means are
provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment
operation or produce a specific result to safeguard
the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats,
duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-
actuated linkage and similar devices), such
means shall be capable of being overridden by the
fire-fighter’s control panel. The last control action as
indicated by each fire-fighter’s control panel switch
position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions
require the smoke control system to assume more
than one configuration at any one time.
Exception: Power disconnects required by the
ICC Electrical Code.
2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position
fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic
or manual control action from other control
points within the building. The AUTO position shall
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control
position. Where a fire-fighter’s control panel is in the
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on,
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the
status indicator described above. When directed by an
automatic signal to assume an emergency condition,
the NORMAL position shall become the emergency
condition for that device or group of devices within
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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
the zone. In no case shall control actions require the
smoke control system to assume more than one configuration
at any one time.

International Building Code 909.17

System response time. Smoke-control system activation
shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate
automatic or manual activation command. Smoke
control systems shall activate individual components (such as
dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical
damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment.
For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter’s control panel
response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke
control action initiated from any other building control point.
The total response time, including that necessary for detection,
shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system
startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved
before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke
condition. The system response time for each component and
their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required
rational analysis and verification of their installed condition
reported in the required final report.

International Building Code 909.18

Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, components
and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in
addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall
consist of determination of function, sequence and, where
applicable, capacity of their installed condition.

Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors
that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in
accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition.
When applicable, this testing shall include verification of
airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.

Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control
system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices
to determine actual air quantities.

Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function
in their installed condition.

Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be
read using generally accepted practices to determine air
quantities.

Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation.
Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per
minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made.

Smoke barriers. Measurements using
inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring
devices shall be made of the pressure differences across
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for
each possible smoke control condition.

Controls. Each smoke zone, equipped with an
automatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by
the actuation of one such device. Each additional device
within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence
without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to
prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified
throughout the system, including verification of override
from the fire-fighter’s control panel and simulation of
standby power conditions.

Special inspections for smoke control.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector.

Scope of testing. Special inspections
shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment
for the purposes of leakage testing and
recording of device location.
2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing,
flow measurements, and detection and control verification.

Qualifications. Special inspection agencies
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection
engineering, mechanical engineering and
certification as air balancers.

Reports. A complete report of testing
shall be prepared by the special inspector or special
inspection agency. The report shall include identification
of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design
values, measured values and identification tag or mark.
The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered
design professional and, when satisfied that the
design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered
design professional shall seal, sign and date the
report.

Report filing. A copy of the final
report shall be filed with the fire code official and an
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved
location at the building.

Identification and documentation. Charts,
drawings and other documents identifying and locating
each component of the smoke control system, and describing
its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall
be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the
report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an
approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with
the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating
the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.

International Building Code 909.18.1

Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors
that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in
accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition.
When applicable, this testing shall include verification of
airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.

International Building Code 909.18.2

Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control
system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices
to determine actual air quantities.

International Building Code 909.18.3

Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function
in their installed condition.

International Building Code 909.18.4

Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be
read using generally accepted practices to determine air
quantities.

International Building Code 909.18.5

Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation.
Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per
minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made.

International Building Code 909.18.6

Smoke barriers. Measurements using
inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring
devices shall be made of the pressure differences across
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for
each possible smoke control condition.

International Building Code 909.18.7

Controls. Each smoke zone, equipped with an
automatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by
the actuation of one such device. Each additional device
within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence
without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to
prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified
throughout the system, including verification of override
from the fire-fighter’s control panel and simulation of
standby power conditions.

International Building Code 909.18.8

Special inspections for smoke control.
Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector.

Scope of testing. Special inspections
shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment
for the purposes of leakage testing and
recording of device location.
2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing,
flow measurements, and detection and control verification.

Qualifications. Special inspection agencies
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection
engineering, mechanical engineering and
certification as air balancers.

Reports. A complete report of testing
shall be prepared by the special inspector or special
inspection agency. The report shall include identification
of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design
values, measured values and identification tag or mark.
The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered
design professional and, when satisfied that the
design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered
design professional shall seal, sign and date the
report.

Report filing. A copy of the final
report shall be filed with the fire code official and an
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved
location at the building.

International Building Code 909.18.8.1

Scope of testing. Special inspections
shall be conducted in accordance with the following:
1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment
for the purposes of leakage testing and
recording of device location.
2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing,
flow measurements, and detection and control verification.

International Building Code 909.18.8.2

Qualifications. Special inspection agencies
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection
engineering, mechanical engineering and
certification as air balancers.

International Building Code 909.18.8.3

Reports. A complete report of testing
shall be prepared by the special inspector or special
inspection agency. The report shall include identification
of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design
values, measured values and identification tag or mark.
The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered
design professional and, when satisfied that the
design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered
design professional shall seal, sign and date the
report.

Report filing. A copy of the final
report shall be filed with the fire code official and an
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved
location at the building.

International Building Code 909.18.8.3.1

Report filing. A copy of the final
report shall be filed with the fire code official and an
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved
location at the building.

International Building Code 909.18.9

Identification and documentation. Charts,
drawings and other documents identifying and locating
each component of the smoke control system, and describing
its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall
be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the
report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an
approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with
the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating
the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.

International Building Code 909.19

System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof,
required by this code to comply with this section shall not be
issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire
code official determines that the provisions of this section have
been fully complied with and that the fire department has
received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic
and manual, of the system.
Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary
certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code
official, shall be allowed provided that those portions of the
building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section
and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard
to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent
buildings.

International Building Code 909.2

General design requirements. Buildings, structures
or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control
system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance
with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the
generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering
relevant to the design. The construction documents
shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately
describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper
implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents
shall be accompanied by sufficient information and
analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.

International Building Code 909.20

Smokeproof enclosures. Where required by Section
1020.1.7, a smokeproof enclosure shall be constructed in
accordance with this section. A smokeproof enclosure shall
consist of an enclosed interior exit stairway that conforms to
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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
Section 1020.1 and an open exterior balcony or ventilated vestibule
meeting the requirements of this section. Where access
to the roof is required by the International Fire Code, such
access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a
smokeproof enclosure is required.

Access. Access to the stair shall be byway of a vestibule
or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension
of the vestibule shall not be less than the required width of
the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a
width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a
length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of
egress travel.

Construction. The smokeproof enclosure shall be
separated from the remainder of the building by not less
than a 2-hour fire barrier without openings other than the
required means of egress doors. The vestibule shall be separated
from the stairway by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier.
The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance
with the fire-resistance-rating requirements for floor
construction.

Door closers. Doors in a smokeproof enclosure
shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a
smoke detector installed at the floor-side entrance to the
smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke
detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on
all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels.
Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with
Section 907.10.

Natural ventilation alternative. The provisions
of Sections 909.20.3.1 through 909.20.3.3 shall apply to
ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means.

Balcony doors. Where access to the stairway
is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly
into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accordance
with Section 715.4.

Vestibule doors. Where access to the stairway
is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the
vestibule shall be a fire door complying with Section
715.4. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway
shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection
rating complying with Section 715.4.

Vestibule ventilation. Each vestibule shall
have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) of
opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public
way that is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in width.

Mechanical ventilation alternative. The provisions
of Sections 909.20.4.1 through 909.20.4.4 shall apply
to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical
means.

Vestibule doors. The door assembly from the
building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly
complying with Section 715.4.3. The door assembly
from the vestibule to the stairway shall not have less than
a 20-minute fire protection rating and meet the requirements
for a smoke door assembly in accordance with
Section 715.4.3. The door shall be installed in accordance
with NFPA 105.

Vestibule ventilation. The vestibule shall be
supplied with not less than one air change per minute and
the exhaust shall not be less than 150 percent of supply.
Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge
from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed
ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter
the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level.
The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top
of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm)
down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within
the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not
obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling
dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the
design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise
required.

Engineered ventilation system. Where
a specially engineered system is used, the system
shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90
air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency
operation mode and shall be sized to handle
three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors
shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule
and shall activate the system for the affected
vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance
with Section 907.10.

Smoke trap. The vestibule ceiling shall be at
least 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening
into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to
provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall
not be decreased unless approved and justified by design
and test.

Stair shaft air movement system. The stair
shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening
and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum
positive pressure of 0.10 inch ofwater (25 Pa) in the shaft
relative to the vestibule with all doors closed.

Stair pressurization alternative. Where the
building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the vestibule
is not required, provided that interior exit stairways are pressurized
to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water (37 Pa) and a
maximum of 0.35 inch of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relative
to the building measured with all stairway doors closed
under maximum anticipated stack pressures.

Ventilating equipment. The activation of ventilating
equipment required by the alternatives in Sections
909.20.4 and 909.20.5 shall be by smoke detectors installed
at each floor level at an approved location at the entrance to
the smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for the
stair shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detection
or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall activate
and operate at the required performance levels. Smoke
detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section
907.10.
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Ventilation systems. Smokeproof enclosure
ventilation systems shall be independent of other building
ventilation systems. The equipment and ductwork
shall comply with one of the following:
1. Equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior
to the building and directly connected to the
smokeproof enclosure or connected to the
smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by
2-hour fire barriers.
2. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within
the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust
directly from and to the outside or through
ductwork enclosed by 2-hour fire barriers.
3. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within
the building if separated from the remainder of the
building, including other mechanical equipment,
by 2-hour fire barriers.

Standby power. Mechanical vestibule and
stair shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detection
systems shall be powered by an approved standby
power system conforming to Section 403.10.1 and
Chapter 27.

Acceptance and testing. Before the mechanical
equipment is approved, the system shall be tested in
the presence of the building official to confirm that the
system is operating in compliance with these requirements.

International Building Code 909.20.1

Access. Access to the stair shall be byway of a vestibule
or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension
of the vestibule shall not be less than the required width of
the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a
width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a
length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of
egress travel.

International Building Code 909.20.2

Construction. The smokeproof enclosure shall be
separated from the remainder of the building by not less
than a 2-hour fire barrier without openings other than the
required means of egress doors. The vestibule shall be separated
from the stairway by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier.
The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance
with the fire-resistance-rating requirements for floor
construction.

Door closers. Doors in a smokeproof enclosure
shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a
smoke detector installed at the floor-side entrance to the
smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke
detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on
all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels.
Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with
Section 907.10.

International Building Code 909.20.2.1

Door closers. Doors in a smokeproof enclosure
shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a
smoke detector installed at the floor-side entrance to the
smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke
detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on
all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels.
Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with
Section 907.10.

International Building Code 909.20.3

Natural ventilation alternative. The provisions
of Sections 909.20.3.1 through 909.20.3.3 shall apply to
ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means.

Balcony doors. Where access to the stairway
is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly
into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accordance
with Section 715.4.

Vestibule doors. Where access to the stairway
is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the
vestibule shall be a fire door complying with Section
715.4. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway
shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection
rating complying with Section 715.4.

Vestibule ventilation. Each vestibule shall
have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) of
opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public
way that is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in width.

International Building Code 909.20.3.1

Balcony doors. Where access to the stairway
is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly
into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accordance
with Section 715.4.

International Building Code 909.20.3.2

Vestibule doors. Where access to the stairway
is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the
vestibule shall be a fire door complying with Section
715.4. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairway
shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection
rating complying with Section 715.4.

International Building Code 909.20.3.3

Vestibule ventilation. Each vestibule shall
have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m2) of
opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public
way that is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in width.

International Building Code 909.20.4

Mechanical ventilation alternative. The provisions
of Sections 909.20.4.1 through 909.20.4.4 shall apply
to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical
means.

Vestibule doors. The door assembly from the
building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly
complying with Section 715.4.3. The door assembly
from the vestibule to the stairway shall not have less than
a 20-minute fire protection rating and meet the requirements
for a smoke door assembly in accordance with
Section 715.4.3. The door shall be installed in accordance
with NFPA 105.

Vestibule ventilation. The vestibule shall be
supplied with not less than one air change per minute and
the exhaust shall not be less than 150 percent of supply.
Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge
from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed
ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter
the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level.
The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top
of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm)
down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within
the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not
obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling
dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the
design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise
required.

Engineered ventilation system. Where
a specially engineered system is used, the system
shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90
air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency
operation mode and shall be sized to handle
three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors
shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule
and shall activate the system for the affected
vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance
with Section 907.10.

Smoke trap. The vestibule ceiling shall be at
least 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening
into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to
provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall
not be decreased unless approved and justified by design
and test.

Stair shaft air movement system. The stair
shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening
and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum
positive pressure of 0.10 inch ofwater (25 Pa) in the shaft
relative to the vestibule with all doors closed.

International Building Code 909.20.4.1

Vestibule doors. The door assembly from the
building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly
complying with Section 715.4.3. The door assembly
from the vestibule to the stairway shall not have less than
a 20-minute fire protection rating and meet the requirements
for a smoke door assembly in accordance with
Section 715.4.3. The door shall be installed in accordance
with NFPA 105.

International Building Code 909.20.4.2

Vestibule ventilation. The vestibule shall be
supplied with not less than one air change per minute and
the exhaust shall not be less than 150 percent of supply.
Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge
from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed
ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter
the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level.
The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top
of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm)
down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within
the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not
obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling
dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the
design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise
required.

Engineered ventilation system. Where
a specially engineered system is used, the system
shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90
air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency
operation mode and shall be sized to handle
three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors
shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule
and shall activate the system for the affected
vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance
with Section 907.10.

International Building Code 909.20.4.2.1

Engineered ventilation system. Where
a specially engineered system is used, the system
shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90
air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emergency
operation mode and shall be sized to handle
three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors
shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each vestibule
and shall activate the system for the affected
vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance
with Section 907.10.

International Building Code 909.20.4.3

Smoke trap. The vestibule ceiling shall be at
least 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening
into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to
provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall
not be decreased unless approved and justified by design
and test.

International Building Code 909.20.4.4

Stair shaft air movement system. The stair
shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening
and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum
positive pressure of 0.10 inch ofwater (25 Pa) in the shaft
relative to the vestibule with all doors closed.

International Building Code 909.20.5

Stair pressurization alternative. Where the
building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the vestibule
is not required, provided that interior exit stairways are pressurized
to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water (37 Pa) and a
maximum of 0.35 inch of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relative
to the building measured with all stairway doors closed
under maximum anticipated stack pressures.

International Building Code 909.20.6

Ventilating equipment. The activation of ventilating
equipment required by the alternatives in Sections
909.20.4 and 909.20.5 shall be by smoke detectors installed
at each floor level at an approved location at the entrance to
the smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for the
stair shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detection
or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall activate
and operate at the required performance levels. Smoke
detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section
907.10.
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Ventilation systems. Smokeproof enclosure
ventilation systems shall be independent of other building
ventilation systems. The equipment and ductwork
shall comply with one of the following:
1. Equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior
to the building and directly connected to the
smokeproof enclosure or connected to the
smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by
2-hour fire barriers.
2. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within
the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust
directly from and to the outside or through
ductwork enclosed by 2-hour fire barriers.
3. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within
the building if separated from the remainder of the
building, including other mechanical equipment,
by 2-hour fire barriers.

Standby power. Mechanical vestibule and
stair shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detection
systems shall be powered by an approved standby
power system conforming to Section 403.10.1 and
Chapter 27.

Acceptance and testing. Before the mechanical
equipment is approved, the system shall be tested in
the presence of the building official to confirm that the
system is operating in compliance with these requirements.

International Building Code 909.20.6.1

Ventilation systems. Smokeproof enclosure
ventilation systems shall be independent of other building
ventilation systems. The equipment and ductwork
shall comply with one of the following:
1. Equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior
to the building and directly connected to the
smokeproof enclosure or connected to the
smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by
2-hour fire barriers.
2. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within
the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust
directly from and to the outside or through
ductwork enclosed by 2-hour fire barriers.
3. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within
the building if separated from the remainder of the
building, including other mechanical equipment,
by 2-hour fire barriers.

International Building Code 909.20.6.2

Standby power. Mechanical vestibule and
stair shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detection
systems shall be powered by an approved standby
power system conforming to Section 403.10.1 and
Chapter 27.

International Building Code 909.20.6.3

Acceptance and testing. Before the mechanical
equipment is approved, the system shall be tested in
the presence of the building official to confirm that the
system is operating in compliance with these requirements.

International Building Code 909.3

Special inspection and test requirements. In addition
to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which
buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo,
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909
shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify
the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its
final installed condition. The design submission accompanying
the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures
and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections
and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance
with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible,
based on published standards for the particular testing
involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section
shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1704.

International Building Code 909.4

Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of
smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of operation,
the systems supporting them and the methods of construction
to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction
documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items
indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6.

Stack effect. The system shall be designed such
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect
will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In
determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude,
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be
used.

] Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and
expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed
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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the
system’s capabilities.

Wind effect. The design shall consider the
adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent
with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16.

HVAC systems. The design shall consider the
effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning
(HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The
analysis shall include all permutations of systems status.
The design shall consider the effects of the fire on theHVAC
systems.

Climate. The design shall consider the effects
of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants.
Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow
or ice blockage.

Duration of operation. All portions of active or
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued
operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not
less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress
time, whichever is less.

International Building Code 909.4.1

Stack effect. The system shall be designed such
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect
will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In
determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude,
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be
used.

International Building Code 909.4.2

] Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and
expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed
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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the
system’s capabilities.

International Building Code 909.4.3

Wind effect. The design shall consider the
adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent
with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16.

International Building Code 909.4.4

HVAC systems. The design shall consider the
effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning
(HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The
analysis shall include all permutations of systems status.
The design shall consider the effects of the fire on theHVAC
systems.

International Building Code 909.4.5

Climate. The design shall consider the effects
of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants.
Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow
or ice blockage.

International Building Code 909.4.6

Duration of operation. All portions of active or
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued
operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not
less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress
time, whichever is less.

International Building Code 909.5

Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall
comply with Section 709, and shall be constructed and sealed
to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The
maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area
calculated using the following leakage area ratios:
1. Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100
2. Exit enclosures: A/Aw = 0.00035
3. All other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
4. Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050
where:
A = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
AF = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).
The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be
included in calculating the total leakage area.

Leakage area. The total leakage area of the barrier
is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied
by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other
openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance
shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure
difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke
control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive
smoke control systems tested using other approved
means such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the
fire code official.

Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers
shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated
by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control
system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door
assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3.
Exceptions:
1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-
closing devices actuated by spot-type
smoke detectors listed for releasing service
installed in accordance with Section 907.10.
2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected
utilizing the airflow method.
3. In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without
a center mullion shall be installed having
vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing
materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area
of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors
shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances
and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles.
The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals
or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-
closing by smoke detection in accordance
with Section 715.4.7.3. Positive-latching devices
are not required.
4. Group I-3.
5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as
determined by the design fire size.

Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts
and air transfer openings are required to be protected
with a minimum Class II, 250F (121C) smoke damper
complying with Section 716.

International Building Code 909.5.1

Leakage area. The total leakage area of the barrier
is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied
by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other
openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance
shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure
difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke
control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive
smoke control systems tested using other approved
means such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the
fire code official.

International Building Code 909.5.2

Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers
shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated
by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control
system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door
assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3.
Exceptions:
1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-
closing devices actuated by spot-type
smoke detectors listed for releasing service
installed in accordance with Section 907.10.
2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected
utilizing the airflow method.
3. In Group I-2, where such doors are installed across
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without
a center mullion shall be installed having
vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing
materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area
of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors
shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances
and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles.
The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals
or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-
closing by smoke detection in accordance
with Section 715.4.7.3. Positive-latching devices
are not required.
4. Group I-3.
5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as
determined by the design fire size.

Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts
and air transfer openings are required to be protected
with a minimum Class II, 250F (121C) smoke damper
complying with Section 716.

International Building Code 909.5.2.1

Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts
and air transfer openings are required to be protected
with a minimum Class II, 250F (121C) smoke damper
complying with Section 716.

International Building Code 909.6

Pressurization method. The primary mechanical
means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment
is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin.

Minimum pressure difference. The minimum
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be
0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered
buildings.
In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered,
the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure
differences at least two times the maximum calculated
pressure difference produced by the design fire.

Maximum pressure difference. The maximum
air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be
determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The
actual force required to open exit doors when the system is
in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section
1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for
the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force
to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined
by:
(Equation 9-1)
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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
where:
A = Door area, square feet (m2).
d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door,
feet (m).
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds
(N).
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W = Door width, feet (m).
?P = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).

International Building Code 909.6.1

Minimum pressure difference. The minimum
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be
0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered
buildings.
In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered,
the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure
differences at least two times the maximum calculated
pressure difference produced by the design fire.

International Building Code 909.6.2

Maximum pressure difference. The maximum
air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be
determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The
actual force required to open exit doors when the system is
in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section
1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for
the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force
to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined
by:
(Equation 9-1)
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 191
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
where:
A = Door area, square feet (m2).
d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door,
feet (m).
F = Total door opening force, pounds (N).
Fdc = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds
(N).
K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
W = Door width, feet (m).
?P = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).

International Building Code 909.7

Airflow design method. When approved by the fire
code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently
open position, which are located between smoke
control zones by the use of the airflowmethod, shall be permitted.
The design airflowshall be in accordance with this section.
Airflowshall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire
zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent
flow reversal from turbulent effects.

Velocity. The minimum average velocity
through a fixed opening shall not be less than:
(Equation 9-2)
For SI: v = 119.9 [h (Tf - To)/Tf]1/2
where:
h = Height of opening, feet (m).
Tf = Temperature of smoke, F (K).
To = Temperature of ambient air, F (K).
v = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).

Prohibited conditions. This method shall not
be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity
of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the
smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt
plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall
airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02
m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflow
to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.

International Building Code 909.7.1

Velocity. The minimum average velocity
through a fixed opening shall not be less than:
(Equation 9-2)
For SI: v = 119.9 [h (Tf - To)/Tf]1/2
where:
h = Height of opening, feet (m).
Tf = Temperature of smoke, F (K).
To = Temperature of ambient air, F (K).
v = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).

International Building Code 909.7.2

Prohibited conditions. This method shall not
be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity
of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the
smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt
plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall
airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02
m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflow
to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.

International Building Code 909.8

Exhaust method. When approved by the fire code
official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes,
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the
exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust
method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B.

Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal
surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be maintained
at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface
that forms a portion of a required egress system within the
smoke zone.

International Building Code 909.8.1

Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal
surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be maintained
at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface
that forms a portion of a required egress system within the
smoke zone.

International Building Code 909.9

Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a rational
analysis performed by the registered design professional
and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be
based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this
section.

Factors considered. The engineering analysis
shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects
included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady
or unsteady.

Separation distance. Determination of the
design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel,
fuel spacing and configuration.
(Equation 9-8)
where:
q = Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpiloted
ignition, Btu/ft2 #?s (W/m2).
Q = Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW).
R = Separation distance from target to center of fuel
package, feet (m).

Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall
make use of best available data from approved sources and
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of
combustible material.

Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A documented
engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions
that assume fire growth is halted at the time of
sprinkler activation.

International Building Code 909.9.1

Factors considered. The engineering analysis
shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects
included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady
or unsteady.

International Building Code 909.9.2

Separation distance. Determination of the
design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel,
fuel spacing and configuration.
(Equation 9-8)
where:
q = Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpiloted
ignition, Btu/ft2 #?s (W/m2).
Q = Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW).
R = Separation distance from target to center of fuel
package, feet (m).

International Building Code 909.9.3

Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall
make use of best available data from approved sources and
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of
combustible material.

International Building Code 909.9.4

Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A documented
engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions
that assume fire growth is halted at the time of
sprinkler activation.