### International Building Code 1602.1

Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for

the purposes of this chapter, have the meanings shown herein.

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. A method of proportioning

structural members, such that elastically computed stresses

produced in the members by nominal loads do not exceed specified

allowable stresses (also called “working stress design”).

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. An exterior floor projecting from

and supported by a structure without additional independent

supports.

DEAD LOADS. The weight of materials of construction

incorporated into the building, including but not limited to

walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes,

cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural

and structural items, and the weight of fixed service equipment,

such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, electrical feeders,

heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and fire

sprinkler systems.

DECK. An exterior floor supported on at least two opposing

sides by an adjacent structure, and/or posts, piers or other independent

supports.

DESIGN STRENGTH. The product of the nominal strength

and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor).

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or sloped system acting to transmit

lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. When the

term “diaphragm” is used, it shall include horizontal bracing

systems.

Diaphragm, blocked. In light-frame construction, a diaphragm

in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a

framing member are supported on and fastened to blocking.

Diaphragm boundary. In light-frame construction, a location

where shear is transferred into or out of the diaphragm

sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary element or to

another force-resisting element.

Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element perpendicular

to the applied load that is assumed to take axial

stresses due to the diaphragm moment.

Diaphragm flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the purpose

of distribution of story shear and torsional moment

where so indicated in Section 12.3.1 ofASCE7, as modified

in Section 1613.6.1.

Diaphragm, rigid. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose of

distribution of story shear and torsional moment when the

lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or equal to

two times the average story drift.

DURATION OF LOAD. The period of continuous application

of a given load, or the aggregate of periods of intermittent

applications of the same load.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. Buildings and other structures

that are intended to remain operational in the event of extreme

environmental loading from flood, wind, snowor earthquakes.

FABRIC PARTITIONS. A partition consisting of a finished

surface made of fabric, without a continuous rigid backing, that

is directly attached to a framing system in which the vertical

framing members are spaced greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) on

center.

FACTOREDLOAD. The product of a nominal load and a load

factor.

GUARD. See Section 1002.1.

IMPACT LOAD. The load resulting from moving machinery,

elevators, craneways, vehicles and other similar forces and

kinetic loads, pressure and possible surcharge from fixed or

moving loads.

LIMIT STATE. A condition beyond which a structure or

member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no longer

useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) or to

be unsafe (strength limit state).

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy

of the building or other structure and do not include construction

or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load,

rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). Those loads produced (1) during

maintenance by workers, equipment and materials; and (2)

during the life of the structure by movable objects such as

planters and by people.

LOADANDRESISTANCEFACTORDESIGN (LRFD).A

method of proportioning structural members and their connections

using load and resistance factors such that no applicable

limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to appropriate

load combinations. The term “LRFD” is used in the

design of steel and wood structures.

LOAD EFFECTS. Forces and deformations produced in

structural members by the applied loads.

LOAD FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations of the

actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the analysis

that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the probability

that more than one extreme load will occur

simultaneously.

LOADS. Forces or other actions that result from the weight of

building materials, occupants and their possessions, environ-

2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 277

?

?

?

?

?

mental effects, differential movement and restrained dimensional

changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which

variations over time are rare or of small magnitude, such as

dead loads. All other loads are variable loads (see also “Nominal

loads”).

NOMINALLOADS. The magnitudes of the loads specified in

this chapter (dead, live, soil, wind, snow, rain, flood and earthquake).

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. A category used to determine

structural requirements based on occupancy.

OTHER STRUCTURES. Structures, other than buildings,

for which loads are specified in this chapter.

PANEL (PARTOF A STRUCTURE). The section of a floor,

wall or roof comprised between the supporting frame of two

adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of floor

or roof construction.

RESISTANCE FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations

of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the

manner and consequences of failure (also called “strength

reduction factor”).

STRENGTH, NOMINAL. The capacity of a structure or

member to resist the effects of loads, as determined by computations

using specified material strengths and dimensions and

equations derived from accepted principles of structural

mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of scaled models,

allowing for modeling effects and differences between laboratory

and field conditions.

STRENGTH, REQUIRED. Strength of a member, cross section

or connection required to resist factored loads or related

internal moments and forces in such combinations as stipulated

by these provisions.

STRENGTH DESIGN. A method of proportioning structural

members such that the computed forces produced in the members

by factored loads do not exceed the member design

strength [also called “load and resistance factor design”

(LRFD)]. The term “strength design” is used in the design of

concrete and masonry structural elements.

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. A system of building components

near open sides of a garage floor or ramp or building

walls that act as restraints for vehicles.

NOTATIONS.

D = Dead load.

E = Combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake

induced forces as defined in Section 12.4.2 of

ASCE 7.

Em = Maximum seismic load effect of horizontal and vertical

seismic forces as set forth in Section 12.4.3 of

ASCE 7.

F = Load due to fluids with well-defined pressures and

maximum heights.

Fa = Flood load.

H = Load due to lateral earth pressures, ground water

pressure or pressure of bulk materials.

L = Live load, except roof live load, including any permitted

live load reduction.

Lr = Roof live load including any permitted live load

reduction.

R = Rain load.

S = Snow load.

T = Self-straining force arising from contraction or

expansion resulting from temperature change,

shrinkage, moisture change, creep in component

materials, movement due to differential settlement

or combinations thereof.

W = Load due to wind pressure.